education by advice and the guidance of predecessors in that regard
advice depends on two aspects; the first is clarifying righteousness and uncovering falseness and the second is to raise the conscience of the child, so that he becomes affected by correction of the error and he makes fewer mistakes (). as for raising the conscience, it works because the human spirit has an innate willingness to listen, rationalize and be affected of what is delivered or guided (). advice motivates the child to do the right thing.
* kinds of advices:
1- advice by telling a story: when the storyteller uses an interesting way of narrating the story, it will attract the attention of the child and influence him. it is one of the most successful methods ().
2- advice by having a dialogue: it draws the attention of the child and ends his boredom, especially if the dialogue is active (). it gives the parent/educator the chance to know the doubts and thoughts of the child, so that he can deal with them wisely.
3- advice by illustrating examples: the parent/educator should illustrate examples and use figures of speech to clarify his idea to the child.
4- advice by incident: whenever something happens or when a situation takes place, the parent/educator should use it educationally, like commenting on the scenes of war destructions and droughts to remind the child of allah’s blessings on people. this method affects and softens the spirit, because it happens in a sentimental moment, when guidance can be so influential on the child on the long run ().
guidance of predecessors in giving advices: their method was dedication and follow up. if the parent/educator was not following or applying his own advice and honest about it, then spirits and hearts will not listen to him (). also, the good predecessors used to address the child according to his level of understanding, so that their guidance is easily accepted and comprehended by the child (). also, it is better to choose the proper time when the child is fully alert and calm to direct him. the parent/educator can use the time when the child is ill, because at this time his heart is soft and his natural disposition is ready to listen and learn (). yet, it is not practical or suitable to discipline the child while he is playing or in front of strangers, because when the child is playing he might not fully listen as his mind is busy, and when he is directed in front of strangers he might feel embarrassed or shy. so, this eventually does not achieve the aim of discipline.
also, the parent/educator should be careful not to over preach or advise, it should be done in a smart way and at a proper time. he should be sure not to make the child bored by the many directions. also, since the effect of the advice can be temporary, it is preferred to repeat it on different times as the chance arises.
() tarbiyat al-awlad fil islam by abdullah naseh elwan: 2/645.
() manhaj al-tarbiyah al-islamiyah by mohamed qutb: page 187.
() asaleeb al-tarbiyah al-islamiyah by abdul wahab al-babteen
() usul al-tarbiyah al-islamiyah by abdul rahman al-nahlawi: page 206.
() manhaj al-tarbiyah al-islamiyah by mohamed qutb: page 387.