instruction for the one nearing death
i.e. those around the sick should instruct and encourage him to say the shahadah.
‘he whose last words are:
la ilaha illal-lah.
‘none has the right to be worshipped except allah.’
…will enter paradise.’
supplication for one afflicted by a calamity
inna lillahi wa-inna ilayhi rajiaaoon, allahumma/- jurnee fee museebatee wakhluf lee khayran minha.
‘to allah we belong and unto him is our return.o allah, recompense me for my affliction and replace it for me with something better.’
when closing the eyes of the deceased
allahummagh-fir li-name the dead- warfaaa darajatahu fil-mahdiyyeen, wakhlufhu fee aaaqibihi fil-ghabireen, waghfir lana walahu ya rabbal-aaalameen wafsah lahu fee qabrih, wanawwir lahu feeh.
‘o allah, forgive -here the name of the deceased is mentioned- and raise his rank among the rightly guided, and be a successor to whom he has left behind, and forgive us and him o lord of the worlds. make spacious his grave and illuminate it for him.’
a successor: one who succeeds another due to the latter’s absence or death. this is the correct meaning of the word khaleefah; thus, it is incorrect to believe that adam is the khaleefah (vicegerent, as is commonly translated) of allah on earth because allah is never absent, and will never die. this supplication proves the correct understanding of this term and shows that allah succeeds us and guards whom we leave behind when we die or are absent (also refer to supplication #198).
supplication for the deceased at the funeral prayer
allahummagh-fir lahu warhamh, waaaafihi, waaafu aaanh, wa-akrim nuzulah, wawassiaa mudkhalah, waghsilhu bilma-i waththalji walbarad, wanaqqihi minal-khataya kama naqqaytath-thawbal-abyada minad-danas, wa-abdilhu daran khayran min darih, wa-ahlan khayran min ahlih wazawjan khayran min zawjih, wa-adkhilhul-jannah, wa-aaaithhu min aaathabil-qabr, waaaathabin-nar.
‘o allah, forgive and have mercy upon him, excuse him and pardon him, and make honourable his reception. expand his entry, and cleanse him with water, snow, and ice, and purify him of sin as a white robe is purified of filth. exchange his home for a better home, and his family for a better family, and his spouse for a better spouse. admit him into the garden, protect him from the punishment of the grave and the torment of the fire.’
allahummagh-fir lihayyina wamayyitina washahidina, wagha-ibina, wasagheerina wakabeerina, wathakarina wa-onthana. allahumma man ahyaytahu minna fa-ahyihi aaalal-islam, waman tawaffaytahu minna fatawaffahu aaalal-eeman, allahumma la tahrimna ajrah, wala tudillana baaadah.
‘o allah, forgive our living and our dead, those present and those absent, our young and our old, our males and our females. o allah, whom amongst us you keep alive, then let such a life be upon islam, and whom amongst us you take unto yourself, then let such a death be upon faith. o allah, do not deprive us of his reward and do not let us stray after him.’
allahumma inna -name the dead- fee thimmatik, wahabli jiwarik, faqihi min fitnatil-qabr waaaathabin-nar, wa-anta ahlul-wafa/, walhaq, faghfir lahu warhamh, innaka antal-ghafoorur-raheem.
‘o allah, so-and-so is under your care and protection so protect him from the trial of the grave and torment of the fire. indeed you are faithful and truthful. forgive and have mercy upon him, surely you are the oft-forgiving, the most-merciful.’
allahumma aaabduka wabnu amatik, ihtaja ila rahmatik, wa-anta ghaniyyun aaan aaathabih, in kana muhsinan fazid fee hasanatih, wa-in kana museean fatajawaz aaanh.
‘o allah, your servant and the son of your maidservant is in need of your mercy and you are without need of his punishment. if he was righteous then increase his reward and if he was wicked then look over his sins.’
. supplication for the advancement of reward during the funeral prayer
this supplication is made when the deceased is a baby/child (i.e. one not having reached the age of puberty).
after seeking forgiveness for the deceased, one can say:
allahummaj-aaalhu faratan, wathukhran liwalidayh, washafeeaaan mujaban. allahumma thaqqil bihi mawazeenahuma wa-aaathim bihi ojoorahuma, wa-alhiqhu bisalihil-mu/mineen, wajaaalhu fee kafalati ibraheem, waqihi birahmatika aaathabal-jaheem.
‘o allah, make him a preceding reward and a stored treasure for his parents, and an answered intercessor. o allah, through him, make heavy their scales and magnify their reward. unite him with the righteous believers, place him under the care of ibraheem, and protect him by your mercy from the torment of hell.’
al-hasan used to recite the opening chapter of the quran (i.e. al-fatihah) over the child and then supplicates:
allahummaj-aaalhu lana farata, wasalafan wa-ajra.
‘o allah, make him a preceding reward, a prepayment and a recompense for us.’
inna lillahi ma akhath, walahu ma aaata, wakullu shayin aaindahu bi-ajalin musamma…faltasbir waltahtasib.
‘verily to allah, belongs what he took and to him belongs what he gave, and everything with him has an appointed time…and then he rordered for her to be patient and hope for allah’s reward.’
the words (faltasbir waltahtasib) are commands in the feminine 3rd person form, so they will need to be changed in respect to whom is being addressed.
...and one can also say:
aaathamal-lahu ajrak, wa-ahsana aaazaak, waghafara limayyitik.
‘may allah magnify your reward, make better your solace and forgive your deceased.’
this is the saying of some of the scholars, not a hadeeth.
placing the deceased in the grave
bismil-lahi waaaala sunnati rasoolil-lah.
‘in the name of allah and upon the sunnah of the messenger of allah.’
after burying the deceased
‘after the prophet rwould bury the deceased he would stand by the grave and say: ‘seek forgiveness for your brother and pray that he remains firm, for he is now being questioned’.’
visiting the graves
assalamu aaalaykum ahlad-diyari minal-mu/mineena walmuslimeen, wa-inna in shaal-lahu bikum lahiqoon, nas-alul-laha lana walakumul-aaafiyah.
‘peace be upon you all, o inhabitants of the graves, amongst the believers and the muslims. verily we will, allah willing, be united with you, we ask allah for well-being for us and you.’