four events of special significance occurred within less than four weeks — the conversion of hamzah, the conversion of ‘umar, muhammad’s [pbuh] refusal to negotiate any sort of compromise and then the pact drawn up between banu muttalib and banu hashim to immunize muhammad [pbuh] and shield him against any treacherous attempt to kill him. the polytheists were baffled and at a loss as to what course they would follow to rid themselves of this obstinate and relentless obstacle that had appeared to shatter to pieces their whole tradition of life. they had already been aware that if they killed muhammad [pbuh] their blood would surely flow profusely in the valleys of makkah and they would certainly be exterminated. taking this dreadful prospect into consideration, they grudgingly resorted to a different iniquitous course that would not imply murder.
the pagans of makkah held a meeting in a place called wadi al-muhassab, and formed a confederation hostile to both bani hashim and bani al-muttalib. they decided not to have any business dealings with them nor any sort of inter-marriage. social relations, visits and even verbal contacts with muhammad [pbuh] and his supporters would discontinue until the prophet [pbuh] was given up to them to be killed. the articles of their proclamation, which had provided for merciless measures against bani hashim, were committed to writing by an idolater, bagheed bin ‘amir bin hashim and then suspended in al-ka‘bah. the prophet [pbuh] invoked allâh’s imprecations upon bagheed, whose hand was later paralysed. [za'd al-ma'ad 2/46]