just as the prophet [pbuh] had established a code of brotherhood amongst the believers, so too he was keen on establishing friendly relations between the muslims and non-muslim tribes of arabia. he established a sort of treaty aiming at ruling out all pre-islamic rancour and inter-tribal feuds. he was so meticulous not to leave any area in the charter that would allow pre-islamic traditions to sneak in or violate the new environment he wanted to establish. herein, we look over some of its provisions.
in the name of allâh, the most beneficent, the most merciful. this is a document from muhammad, the messenger of allâh, concerning emigrants and helpers and those who followed and strove with them.
- they are one nation to the exclusion of other people.
- the emigrants of quraish unite together and shall pay blood money among themselves, and shall ransom honourably their prisoners. every tribe of the helpers unite together, as they were at first, and every section among them will pay a ransom for acquitting its relative prisoners.
- believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by not paying his redemption money or blood money in kind.
- whoever is rebellious or whoever seeks to spread enmity and sedition, the hand of every god-fearing muslim shall be against him, even if he be his son.
- a believer shall not kill another believer, nor shall support a disbeliever against a believer.
- the protection of allâh is one (and is equally) extended to the humblest of the believers.
- the believers are supported by each other.
- whosoever of the jews follows us shall have aid and succour; they shall not be injured, nor any enemy be aided against them.
- the peace of the believers is indivisible. no separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the way of allâh. conditions must be fair and equitable to all.
- it shall not be lawful for a believer, who holds by what is in this document and believes in allâh and the day of judgement, to help a criminal nor give him refuge. those who give him refuge and render him help shall have the curse and anger of allâh on the day of resurrection. their indemnity is not accepted.
- whenever you differ about a matter, it must be referred to allâh and to muhammad.[ibn hisham 1/502,503]
- killing a believer deliberately with no good reason entails killing the killer unless the sponsor deems it otherwise.