over the years ishmael's children themselves had children. his descendants increased and formed tribes which spread out all over arabia. one of these tribes was called quraysh. its people never moved away from mecca and always lived near the ka'bah. one of the duties of the leader of quraysh was to look after those who came on pilgrimage to the ka'bah. the pilgrims would come from all over arabia and it was a great honor to provide them with food and water.
as time passed, however, the arabs stopped worshipping allah directly and started bringing idols back with them from the different countries they visited. these idols were placed at the ka'bah, which was no longer regarded as the sanctuary of allah, as abraham had intended it. it was, however, still respected by the arabs. around this time the well of zamzam disappeared beneath the sand.
also at this time, qusayy, one of the leaders of quraysh, became ruler over mecca. he held the keys of the temple and had the right to give water to the pilgrims, to feed them, to take charge of meetings, and to hand out war banners before battle. it was also in his house that quraysh settled their affairs. after qusayy's death, his son 'abdu manaf, who had become famous during his father's lifetime, took over the leadership of quraysh. after him came his son hashim. it is said that hashim was the first to begin the two great caravan journeys of quraysh, one in the summer to syria and the north, and one in the winter to yemen and the south. as a result, mecca grew rich and became a large and important centre of trade.
one summer hashim went north to buy goods to sell in yemen. on his way he stopped in yathrib to trade in the market and there he saw a beautiful woman. she was salma', the daughter of 'amr ibn zeid, who was from a much respected family.
hashim proposed marriage to her and was accepted because he was an honorable and distinguished man.
in time, salma' gave birth to a beautiful son and as some of his hair was white they called him shaybah, which in arabic means grey-haired'.
mother and son stayed in the cooler, healthier climate of yathrib, while hashim returned to mecca, but he would visit them each time he took his caravan to the north. during one of these journeys, however, hashim became ill and died. shaybah, a handsome, intelligent boy, grew up in his uncle's house in yathrib. he was proud of being the son of hashim ibn 'abdi manaf, the head of quraysh, guardian of the ka'bah and protector of the pilgrims, even though he had not known his father, who had died while shaybah was very young.
at hashim's death his brother al-muttalib took over his duties and responsibilities. he traveled to yathrib to see his nephew, shaybah, and decided that as the boy would one day inherit his father's place,
the time had come for him to live in mecca. it was hard for salma', shaybah's mother, to let her son go with his uncle but she finally realized that it was for the best. al-muttalib returned to mecca, entering the city at noon on his camel with shaybah behind him. when the people of mecca saw the boy they thought he was a slave and, pointing at him, called out 'abd al-muttalib', 'abd' being the arabic for 'slave'.
al-muttalib told them that shaybah was not a slave but his nephew who had come to live with them. from that day on, however, shaybah was always affectionately called abd al-muttalib. on the death of al-muttalib, who died in yemen where he had gone to trade, 'abd al-muttalib took his place. he became the most respected member of his family, loved and admired by all. he was, however, unlike those arabs who had given up the teachings of abraham.