His Guidance in Security, Reconciliation and Treatment of Emissaries
It is confirmed that the Prophet said: “The right of protection is the same for all Muslims;the most humble of them can give it.”
He also said: “Whoever enters into a pact with another people must not dissolve it until it expires or they violate it first.”
He said: “Whoever gives someone security and then kills him, I am disassociated from the killer.”
When the messengers of Musaylimah approached him, he listened to them and then said:
“Was it not that emissaries are not killed, I would have had you beheaded.”
This was his practice: that emissaries should never be killed.
He would not detain an emissary if he chose to keep his faith [instead of Islam]; rather, he would send him back.
If some of his enemies entered a pact with one of his companions without his approval and it was not harmful to the Muslims, he allowed it.
He made a truce of ten years from the state of the war with the Quraysh, on the condition that Muslims who came to him from uraysh would be sent back, while anyone going from him to Quraysh would not be returned. But Allah cancelled this condition in the case of women, and ordered that when they came to the Prophet their faith should be examined. If a woman was found to be a believer she would not be sent back.
If a disbelieving wife chose to join the disbelievers of Quraysh, Allah ordered Muslims to give those whose wives had deserted the quivalent of what they had spent on the wife's mahr (dower). They were to demand it from the disbelievers since the disbelievers had a similar right whenever a believing woman joined the Muslims.
The Prophet did not prevent the Qurayshfrom taking back any men who came to him,but he did not compel them to return nor did he order them to. But when some of those men killed or took the property of disbelievers after leaving the Prophet and without going back to him, he would neither disapprove of it nor guarantee security from them.
The Prophet made a settlement with the Jews of Khaybar after defeating them on condition that they leave the area. They were allowed to take whatever their mounts could carry while the Prophet had the right to their gold, silver and weapons.
He also settled with them concerning the land: that he would have half of its produce and they would have half, as long as they stayed with his permission. He would send someone every year to estimate the value of the crop and see how much was harvested. He would get a guarantee of the Muslims’ share and leave them the rest.