Al-Wadaa” Pilgrimage -the Prophet’s Farewell Pilgrimage
in the ninth day of thul-hijja (the last month in the arabic year ), year 10 hijri (after migration ), the prophet (pbuh) was surrounded by forty thousands of the companions reaching the range of vision. rabi’a bin omaia bin khalaf was among them, he was repeating the speech of the prophet to reach the ears of all people around.
the following eloquent speech was the last one before his death:
“o people, listen to my speech, i don’t know if i’ll see you after this year in this situation ever.
your blood and money is prohibited to you like the holiness of this day, in this month, in this country.
isn’t everything of the pre-islamic period past, and the blood of pre-islam is situated, and the first blood that has been shed from us was the blood of ibn rabiaah bin al-harris , he was breast-fed in bany saad and hozil killed him. the usury of the pre-islam is situated and the first usury to be lost from our usury is that of abbas ben abd al-muttaleb. all of this is situated.
so obey allah in dealing with your wives, you took them with the probity of allah and regarded their vulva as lawful with a word from allah , and you’ll have them not to let someone you hate enter your home, and if they did that you’ll have to beat them but not severely.
i left to you what you will never be lost after it if you took refuge with; the book of allah “ the holy quraan”, when you are asked about me, what are you going to say? , they said: we witness that you informed, guided, and advised.
he said with his forefinger pointed to the sky: oh allah witness that i have informed your message…..”
after the prophet finished his speech, allah descended from heaven his holy speech:
(this day i have perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and have chosen for you islam as your religion) [al-maa’idah:3]
when omar heard it, he cried. he was asked: what makes you cry? he said:” there is nothing after perfection but insufficiency“(sahih al-bukhary 148/5)
with this eloquent speech, the prophet of allah settled the rules of islam. in addition, he destroyed the rules of polytheism and pre-islam. he prohibited the illegal that religions agreed on prohibiting which are blood, money, and honor. he situated the issues of pre-islam under his legs. he entrusted them to treat their women kindly ,he announced the nation that they’ll never be lost since they are following the book of allah, then he told them that he is responsible of them in front of allah. he interrogated them and they all said at one time:” we witness that you informed, guided, and advised. ( zad al-ma’ad 233/2)
in the tenth of thul-hijja, when it was forenoon, the prophet made a speech in the day of immolation while he was on his mule ash-shahbaa, some of the people were sitting and some were standing. he repeated in this speech some of what he have said the day before, and he said moreover:
( o people: the postponing ( of a sacred month) is indeed an addition to disbelief: thereby the disbelievers are led astray, for they make it lawful one year and forbid it another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by allah , and make such forbidden ones lawful.) [at-tawbah: 37]
the year is twelve months in them four prohibited, three in sequence thul-qe’da, thul-hijja, muharram, and rajab mudher (mudhar is a name of a tribe) which was between jumadaa and sha’baan.
the tripe of moudher was one of the arabic tripes which respect (persist in) the sacredness of the month of ragab more than all arabs. however, this persist is not only for allah but it was a habit they inherited from their fathers.
the prophet continued in his speech by saying:
“which month is this?” we said:” allah and his prophet know better.”, so he kept silent that we thought he is going to call it with another name. he said:” isn’t it thul-hijja?” we said:” yes”. he said:” which country is this?” we said:” allah and his prophet know better.”, so he kept silent that we thought he is going to call it with another name. he continued ”so which day is this?” we said:” allah and his prophet know.” therefore, he kept silent that we thought he is going to call it with another name. he said:” isn’t it the day of immolation?” we said:” yes.” he said your blood, money, honor are prohibited to you like the prohibition of this day, in this country, in this month.
in addition, you will meet your allah, and he will ask you about your deeds, do not become astray after me beating each other.
“did i inform?” they said:” yes”.
muhammad said:” allah witness, the present ones should inform the absent ones, and may be the one who will be addressed will be more conscious than the addresser. ( sahih al-bukhariy 148/5)
the message of islam has been completed, and allah finished the immortal sharia even the morals whish the companions learned from their prophet reached its top. before that, they put their selves between the hands of allah and his messenger until allah descends quran from heaven:
[o you who believe! do not put (yourselves) forward before allah and his messenger (saw )] (al-hujuraat: 1)
again the prophet asked them:” which month is this? no one answered, while they know it is the prohibited month, but they all answered a polite answer:” allah and his prophet know better.” then he repeated the question secondly and thirdly despite of knowing the answer, but they all answered:” allah and his prophet knows better” until he said:” isn’t it thul-hijja? isn’t it the day of immolation?” we said:” yes... yes... yes.