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Knowing Allah

Under category The book of Miscellany
Creation date 2008-11-11 02:16:21
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allah, the exalted, says:

"o you who believe! endure and be more patient..". (3:200)

"and certainly, we shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to as-sabirun (the patient)".  (2:155)

"only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning.'' (39:10)

"and verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives, that would truly be from the things recommended by allah.'' (42:43)

"seek help in patience and as-salat (the prayer). truly, allah is with as-sabirun (the patient).'' (2:153)

"and surely, we shall try you till we test those who strive hard (for the cause of allah) and as-sabirun (the patient)'' (47:31)

there are numerous verses of the noble qur'an inculcating patience and extolling it.

25. abu malik al-harith bin asim al-ash`ar (may allah be pleased with him) reported that: the messenger of allah (pbuh) said: "wudu' is half of salah; the utterance of  (al-hamdu lillah - all praise belongs to allah) fills the scales of good actions; the utterance of (subhan allah wa al-hamdu lillah) (allah is far removed from every imperfection and all praise belongs to allah) fills the space between the heavens and the earth, and salat (prayer) is light; and charity is the proof of faith; and endurance is light, and the qur'an is a plea in your favour or against you. every person departs; he either ransoms it or puts it into perdition".

1. piety in all forms is meritorious. and faith means faith in its perfect form. some people are of the opinion that here faith means salat. purification is essential for salat and this is the reason it is regarded as half of salat.

2. excellence of the remembrance of allah.

3. inducement for concentration on salat because it is a light which provides guidance to a muslim at every step and prevents him from obscenity and unlawful actions.

4. sadaqah signifies a muslim's sincerity and devotion.

5. the praiseworthiness of patience. it is a strong weapon of a muslim which provides him with steadfastness.

6. the qur'an is a means of salvation as well as destruction for a muslim. if one acts upon its orders, it becomes a means of his salvation; if he shuns them, it ruins him.

7. one should not leave oneself idle but keep it busy - busy in some noble work, otherwise it would tend to evil which will eventually ruin him.

8. one should spend this transitory earthly life in the obedience of allah.

26. abu sa'id al-khudri (may allah be pleased with him) reported that: certain people of the ansar asked the messenger of allah (pbuh) and he gave them; then they again asked him and he gave them until all what he possessed was exhausted. then the prophet (pbuh) said, "whatever wealth i have, i will not withhold from you. whosoever would be chaste and modest; allah will keep him chaste and modest and whosoever would seek self-sufficiency, allah will make him self-sufficient; and whosoever would be patient, allah will give him patience, and no one is granted a gift better and more comprehensive than patience".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  besides describing generosity, kindness, munificence and nobility of the prophet (pbuh), he has been ordained by allah to adopt patience, contentment and self-respect and to avoid anyone's favour.

27. abu yahya suhaib bin sinan (may allah be pleased with him) reported that: the messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "how wonderful is the case of a believer; there is good for him in everything and this applies only to a believer. if prosperity attends him, he expresses gratitude to allah and that is good for him; and if adversity befalls him, he endures it patiently and that is better for him".

commentary:  a muslim is required to behave in poverty and prosperity, affluence and hardship, in the manner stated in this hadith. it means that to forget allah in prosperity, rather than being thankful to him for his favour is defiance of his orders. similarly, it is unbecoming of a muslim that in troubles and turmoil, rather being patient, he tends to weeping and crying, grousing and grieving against the will of allah.

28. anas (may allah be pleased with him) reported: when the last illness of messenger of allah (pbuh) made him unconscious, fatimah (may allah be pleased with her) exclaimed: "ah, the distress of my dear father.'' he (pbuh) said, "there will be no distress for your father after today". when he died she said: "my father, allah has called you back and you have responded to his call. o father! garden of firdaus is your abode. o father! we announce to jibril your death.'' when he was buried, she said: "are you satisfied now that you put earth over (the grave of) messenger of allah (pbuh)?''

commentary:  this hadith shows that it is permissible to express the trouble and restlessness which one feels at the time of death. similarly, expression of pain and grief in a natural way in the event of someone's death is also permissible. to remember the virtues of the deceased is also permitted but it is to be free from wailing and moaning, lamentation and crying, and tearing off clothes, etc. the last words of fatimah (may allah be pleased with her) are also a way of expressing grief  and sadness and not a criticism on the burial of the prophet (pbuh) because such criticism is prohibited by shari`ah and no one is exempted from it.

29. usamah bin zaid (may allah be pleased with them) narrated: the daughter of the prophet (pbuh) sent for him as her child was dying, but the prophet (pbuh) returned the messenger and sent her good wishes saying, "whatever allah takes away or gives, belongs to him, and everything with him has a limited fixed term (in this world), and so she should be patient and anticipate allah's reward.'' she again sent for him adjuring him for the sake of allah to come. the messenger of allah, accompanied with sa`d bin `ubadah, mu`adh bin jabal, ubayy bin ka`b, zaid bin thabit and some other men went to see her. the child was lifted up to the messenger of allah while his breath was disturbed in his chest. on seeing that, the eyes of the prophet (pbuh) streamed with tears. sa`d said, "o messenger of allah! what is this?'' he replied, "it is compassion which allah has placed in the hearts of his slaves, allah is compassionate only to those among his slaves who are compassionate (to others)".

  another version says: messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "allah shows compassion only to those among his slaves who are compassionate".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

1. gathering of all the relatives is not necessary at the time of someone's death. however, their participation in the funeral prayer is mustahab fard kifayah (a desirable collective duty upon all muslims; but which is sufficient or equivalent to all having performed it if it is performed by only some of them).

2. the desire of the relatives that at the time of someone's death some pious people should be present is quite genuine so that the agonizing process of death is made easy by their prayers.

3. it is lawful that a trustworthy person is made to take an oath and it is essential for the trustee to fulfill it as it increases the mutual trust and love.

4. to shed tears on someone's death, and to advice the relatives of the deceased for patience and accountability are permissible acts.

5. expression of kindness and love is a gift from allah and means to gain his compassion, while deprivation from it is callousness.

30. suhaib (may allah be pleased with him) reported that the messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "there lived a king before you and he had a court magician. as he (the magician) grew old, he said to the king: `i have grown old, so send me a young boy in order to teach him magic.' the king sent him a young boy to serve the purpose. and on his way (to the magician) the young boy met a monk to whom he listened to and liked it. it became his habit that on his way to the magician, he would meet the monk and sit there and would come to the magician (late). the magician used to beat him because of this delay. he complained about this to the monk who said to him: 'when you feel afraid of the magician, say: members of my family detained me. and when you fear your family, say: the magician detained me.' it so happened that there came a huge beast and it blocked the way of the people, and the young boy said: 'i will know today whether the magician or the monk is better.' he picked up a stone and said: `o allah, if the way of the monk is dearer to you than the way of the magician, bring about death to the animal so that the people be able to move about freely.' he threw that stone at it and killed it and the people began to move about freely. he then came to the monk and told him the story. the monk said: `son, today you are superior to me. you have come to a stage where i feel that you would be soon put to a trial, and in case you are put to a trial, do not reveal me.' that young boy began to heal those born blind and the lepers and he, in fact, began to cure people from all kinds of illnesses. when a courtier of the king who had gone blind heard about him, he came to him with numerous gifts and said, `if you cure me, all these things will be yours.' he said, `i myself do not cure anyone. it is allah, the exalted, alone who cures; and if you affirm faith in allah, i shall also supplicate to allah to cure you.' this courtier affirmed his faith in allah and allah cured him. he came to the king and sat by his side as he used to sit before. the king said to him, `who restored your eyesight?' he said, `my rubb.' thereupon he said, 'do you have another lord besides me?' he said, `my rubb and your rubb is allah.' so the king kept torturing him untill he revealed the young boy. the young boy was thus summoned and the king said to him, 'o boy, it has been conveyed to me that you have become so much proficient in your magic that you cure the blind and the lepers and you do such and such.' thereupon he said, `i do not cure anyone; it is allah alone who cures,' and the king took hold of him and began to torture him until he revealed of the monk. the monk was summoned and it was said to him: `you should turn back from your religion.' but he refused. the king sent for a saw, placed it in the middle of his head and cut him into two parts that fell down. then the courtier of the king was brought forward and it was said to him: `turn back from your religion.' he, too, refused, and the saw was placed in the midst of his head and he was torn into two parts. then the boy was sent for and it was said to him: `turn back from your religion.' he refused. the king then handed him over to a group of his courtiers, and said to them: `take him to such and such mountain; make him climb up that mountain and when you reach its peak ask him to renounce his faith. if he refuses to do so, push him to his death.' so they took him and made him climb up the mountain and he said: `o allah, save me from them in any way you like,' and the mountain began to shake and they all fell down (dead) and that young boy came walking to the king. the king said to him, `what happened to your companions?' he said, `allah has saved me from them.' he again handed him to some of his courtiers and said: `take him and carry him in a boat and when you reach the middle of the sea, ask him to renounce his religion. if he does not renounce his religion throw him (into the water).' so they took him and he said: `o allah, save me from them.' the boat turned upside down and they all drowned except the young boy who came walking to the king. the king said to him, `what happened to your companions?' he said, `allah has saved me from them,' and he said to the king: `you cannot kill me until you do what i command you to do.' the king asked, `what is that?' he said, `gather all people in one place and tie me up to the trunk of a tree, then take an arrow from my quiver and say: with the name of allah, the rubb of the boy; then shoot me. if you do that you will be able to kill me.' `the king called the people in an open field and tied the young boy to the trunk of a tree. he took out an arrow from his quiver, fixed in the bow and said, `with the name of allah, the rubb of the young boy,' he then shot the arrow and it hit the boy's temple. the young boy placed his hand upon the temple where the arrow had hit him and died. the people then said: `we believe in the rubb of this young boy.' the king was told: `do you see what you were afraid of, by allah it has taken place; all people have believed.' the king then commanded that trenches be dug and fire lit in them, and said: `he who would not turn back from his (the young boy's) religion,  throw him in the fire' or `he would be ordered to jump into it.' they did so till a woman came with her child. she felt hesitant in jumping into the fire. the child said to her: `o mother! endure (this ordeal) for you are on the right path".

1. the most important lesson of this hadith is that whatever difficulties one has to face on the path of deen, he should endure it with patience and determination; and if interest of the deen requires, one should sacrifice his life for it.

2. the wonders displayed by righteous people are true. when allah's will and wisdom requires, he manifests these wonders through his slaves.

3. it is a proof of the truth of the qur'an that it has retold the great historical event like ashab-ul-ukhdud which, buried in the dust of ages, had long been forgotten.

4. it is not possible to explain and interpret the qur'an without the help of ahadith. the event of ashsb-ul-ukhdud mentioned in the qur'an is an instance in point. it is the hadith that has brought into light the details of the event and clarified its ambiguity.

5. such incidents are a source of strength for the faith of true believers.

31. anas (may allah be pleased with him) reported: the prophet (pbuh) passed by a woman who was crying over a grave and said, "fear allah and be patient.'' she said, "away from me! my calamity has not befallen you and you are not aware of it.'' the woman was later told that it was the prophet (pbuh) (who had advised her). she came to his door where she found no doorkeeper. she said, "(i am sorry) i did not know you.'' messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "patience is (becoming) only at the first (stroke) of grief".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

another narration in muslim says: the woman was crying over her son.

commentary:  this hadith indicates the excellence of the prophet's character. the woman whom he advised to have patience did not behave properly, but the prophet (pbuh) was neither annoyed nor did he reproach her. when she appeared before him for the second time, he again repeated his advice for patience. this hadith has a great lesson for those who call people to the right path. our scholars and preachers should follow this excellent example.

32. abu hurairah (may allah be pleased with him) reported: the messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "allah, the exalted, says: 'i have no reward other than jannah for a believing slave of mine who remains patient for my sake when i take away his beloved one from among the inhabitants of the world".

commentary:  child, wife and parents, etc., are the dearest people to everyone. it is a great sign of faith to accept their death as the will of allah, to bear their loss with patience. wailing and saying nonsense things show weakness of  faith. the reward of patience on such tragedies is jannah while the result of impatience is displeasure of allah.

33. `aishah (may allah be pleased with her) reported: i asked the messenger of allah (pbuh) about pestilence and he said, "it is a punishment which allah sends upon whomsoever he wills, but allah has made it as a mercy to the believers. anyone who remains in a town which is plagued with pestilence maintaining patience expecting the reward from allah, and knowing that nothing will befall him other than what allah has foreordained for him, he would receive a reward of shaheed".

commentary:  to endure patiently in a city where one resides when it is affected by plague or such other epidemics, and not to flee from it, elevates a muslim to the level of shahadah in the way of allah, as is the case in certain other circumstances, like death by drowning or in maternity, etc. this order is based on the consideration that the epidemic should not spread to other cities. on the other hand, residents of other cities are ordered to refrain from visiting the affected city. the hadith clearly shows that it does not go against faith in allah to take steps necessary for prevention and cure. similarly, patience in the event of sickness is a proof of one's perfect faith in the will of allah.

34. anas (may allah be pleased with him) said: i heard the messenger of allah (pbuh) saying, "allah, the glorious and exalted said: `when i afflict my slave in his two dear things (i.e., his eyes), and he endures patiently, i shall compensate him for them with jannah.".

commentary:  blindness is the greatest deprivation in the world and allah grants its reward according to his pleasure. for this reason patience in this case is highly meritorious. its reward is jannah provided the blind is enormously rich in faith.

35. `ata' bin abu rabah reported: ibn `abbas (may allah be pleased with them) asked him whether he would like that he should show him a woman who is from the people jannah. when he replied that he certainly would, he said, "this black woman, who came to the prophet (pbuh) and said, `i suffer from epilepsy and during fits my body is exposed, so make supplication to allah for me.' he (pbuh) replied: 'if you wish you endure it patiently and you be rewarded with jannah, or if you wish, i shall make supplication to allah to cure you?' she said, 'i shall endure it.' then she added: `but my body is exposed, so pray to allah that it may not happen.' he (prophet (pbuh)) then supplicated for her".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  while continuing medical treatment, one should not ignore his prayer to allah because both have importance and utility of their own.

36. `abdullah bin mas`ud (may allah be pleased with him) reported: i can still recall as if i am seeing the messenger of allah (pbuh) resembling one of the prophets whose people scourged him and shed his blood, while he wiped blood from his face, he said: "o allah! forgive my people, because they certainly do not know".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  it mentions the refined character and compassion of the prophets which has an important lesson for those who preach righteousness. they should be always prepared to face hardships involved in inviting people to the right path and, instead of retaliation, forgive their audience and pray for their guidance. these noble qualities are extremely important for those who are devoted to preach religion.

37. abu sa`id and abu hurairah (may allah be pleased with him) reported that the prophet (pbuh) said: "never a believer is stricken with a discomfort, an illness, an anxiety, a grief or mental worry or even the pricking of a thorn but allah will expiate his sins on account of his patience".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  this hadith mentions the special grace and mercy of allah for the muslims. it relates how allah turns the hardships and troubles suffered by a muslim into a means of expiation for his sins. but this is only possible if the believer exercises patience. however, if he starts wailing instead of showing patience then beside suffering hardships, he would be deprived of the reward which lies in bearing them patiently. thus, he shall have to take the burden of additional sins also.

38. ibn mas`ud (may allah be pleased with him) reported: i visited the prophet (pbuh) when he was suffering fever. i said, "you seem to be suffering greatly, o messenger of allah.'' the prophet (pbuh) replied, "yes, i suffer as much as two persons.'' i said, "is that because you have a double reward?'' he replied that that was so and then said, "no muslim is afflicted by a harm, be it the pricking of a thorn or something more (painful than that), but allah thereby causes his sins to fall away just as a tree sheds its leaves".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  prophets have to face more than ordinary troubles and for that reason their reward to bear them is also increased. thus, the excess of hardships and grief is a sign of perfect faith and not a sign of allah's displeasure.

39.  abu hurairah (may allah be pleased with him) reported that: the messenger of allah (pbuh) said: "he whom allah intends good, he makes him to suffer from some affliction".

commentary: troubles of this world like grief, calamity, disease, poverty, loss of life and property, etc., have a benign aspect for a muslim in the sense that on account of them he turns towards allah and begs mercy and compassion from him because of which his sins are forgiven. thus, in these troubles there is a blessing for him in the hereafter.

40. anas (may allah be pleased with him) reported that: the messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "let not one of you wish for death because of a misfortune which befalls him. if  he cannot help doing so, he should say: 'o allah, keep me alive as long as you know that life is better for me, and make me die when death is better for me".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary: since man has no knowledge of his future, whether it is good or bad, so one should never desire for one's own death in consequence of frustration created by troubles and turmoil for two reasons. firstly, desire for death is sheer impatience. secondly, it is quite possible that remaining part of his life may be good for his religious and worldly life. so, it is prohibited to desire death. it is, however, permissible to desire for shahadah or death in makkah or al-madinah but it is a subject quite different from the one under discussion. however, if one has to express wish for his own death, he should do so in the words quoted in the hadith concerned.

41. khabbab bin al-aratt (may allah be pleased with him) reported: we complained to the messenger of allah (pbuh) regarding the persecution inflicted upon us by the disbelievers while he was lying in the shade of the ka`bah, having made a pillow of his cloak. we submitted: "why do you not supplicate for our prevalence (over the opponents)?''. he (pbuh) replied, "among those people before you, a man would be seized and held in a pit dug for him in the ground and he would be sawed into two halves from his head, and his flesh torn away from his bones with an iron comb; but, in spite of this, he would not wean away from his faith. by allah, allah will bring this matter to its consummation until a rider will travel from san`a' to hadramout fearing none except allah, and except the wolf for his sheep, but you are in too much of a hurry".

another narration is: he (pbuh) had placed his cloak under his head and we had been tortured by the polytheists.

1. difficulties in the path of  faith do not come in any particular period. people devoted to their deen have passed through trials and tribulations everywhere and in every age and have emerged purified as does the gold after passing through the furnace. so, it is unbecoming for a muslim to be disturbed by hardships.

2. the glad tidings about domination of religion and peace and security were given in the early period of islam which were subsequently witnessed by the people. even now wherever islam is practised in true sense, peace and security are distinctive features of the system of that country.

42. ibn mas`ud (may allah be pleased with him) reported: after the battle of hunain, messenger of allah (pbuh) favoured some people in the distribution of spoils (for consolation). he gave al-aqra` bin habis and `uyainah bin hisn a hundred camels each and showed favour also to some more honourable persons among the arabs. someone said: "this division is not based on justice and it was not intended to win the pleasure of allah.'' i said to myself: "by allah! i will inform messenger of allah (pbuh) of this.'' i went to him and informed him. his face became red and he said, "who will do justice if allah and his messenger do not?'' then he said, "may allah have mercy on (prophet) musa (moses); he was caused more distress than this but he remained patient.'' having heard this i said to myself: "i shall never convey anything of this kind to him in future".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  this hadith leads to the conclusion that the leader of the people or the calipha has a right, if situation demands, to give to the new muslims and other influential and respectable people of the society more than others for their satisfaction and encouragement. the man who raised objection on the distribution of booty by the prophet (pbuh) was a hypocrite. devout muslims could never think that the prophet (pbuh) could be unjust to anyone. this incident also goes to prove that the prophet (pbuh) also felt as much as others did, the things which infuriated or pleased others, because he was a man and not a superhuman being.

43. anas (may allah be pleased with him) reported that: the messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "when allah intends good for his slave, he punishes him in this world, but when he intends an evil for his slave, he does not hasten to take him to task but calls him to account on the day of resurrection.''

commentary: this hadith shows that, for a muslim, trials are also a blessing in this world because his sins are forgiven in proportion to the trials he has to face and his reward is increased with the will of allah. thus, a muslim should always be patient and contented in the event of trial because without these qualities he will not have the privilege associated with them. in fact, his impatience would increase his sins even further.

44. anas (may allah be pleased with him) reported: one of the sons of abu talhah (may allah be pleased with him) was ailing. abu talhah went out and the boy died in his absence. when he came back, he inquired, "how is the boy?''. umm sulaim, the mother of the boy, replied, "better than before". then she placed his evening meal before him and he ate it; and thereafter slept with her. at last, she said to him: "arrange for the burial of the boy". in the morning, abu talhah went to messenger of allah (pbuh) and informed him of the event. he enquired, "did you sleep together last night?'' abu talhah replied in the affirmative, on which the prophet (pbuh) supplicated, "o allah bless them.'' thereafter, she gave birth to a boy. abu talhah said to me: "take up the boy and carry him to the prophet (pbuh)''  and he sent some dates with him. the prophet (pbuh) enquired, "is there anything with him?'' he said; "yes, some dates". the prophet (pbuh) took a date, chewed it and put it in the mouth of the baby and rubbed the chewed date around the baby's gum and named him `abdullah.
[al-bukhari and muslim].

the narration in bukhari adds: ibn `uyainah relates that a man from the ansar told him that he had seen nine sons of this `abdullah, every one of whom had committed the noble qur'an to memory.

the narration of muslim says: the son of abu talhah (may allah be pleased with him) who was born of umm sulaim died. she (umm sulaim) said to the members of the family: "do not tell abu talhah about his son until i mention it to him myself.'' abu talhah came (home) and she gave him supper. he ate and drank. she then beautified herself the best way she ever did and he slept with her. when she saw that he was satisfied after sexual intercourse with her, she said, "o abu talhah! if some people borrow something from another family and then (the members of the family) ask for its return, would they refuse to give it back to them.'' he said, "no". she said, "then hope reward for your son". abu talhah got angry, and said; "you left me uninformed until i stained myself (with sexual intercourse) and then you told me about my son. "he went to messenger of allah (pbuh) and informed him about the matter. thereupon messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "may allah bless the night you spent together!'' he (the narrator) said: she conceived. (one day) messenger of allah (pbuh) was in the course of a journey and she was along with him. when messenger of allah (pbuh) used to come back to al-madinah from a journey, he would not enter it (during the night). when the people came near al-madinah, she felt labour pains. he (abu talhah) remained with her and messenger of allah (pbuh) proceeded on. abu talhah said: "o rubb, you know that i love to go along with messenger of allah (pbuh) when he goes out and enter along with him when he enters, and i have been detained as you see.'' umm sulaim then said: "o abu talhah, i do not feel (so much pain) as i was feeling earlier, so we better proceed on. so we proceeded on and she felt the labour of delivery as they reached (al-madinah). she gave birth to a male child. my mother said to me: "o anas, none should suckle him until you go to messenger of allah (pbuh) tomorrow  morning.'' the next morning i carried the baby with me to messenger of allah (pbuh), and narrated the rest of the story.
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  this hadith has many lessons for our social life. for instance:
1. the character of a woman of great patience and gratitude is mentioned here. in spite of the death of  her child she neither wept and cried nor did she moan and mourn. she was patient to the extent that when her husband came home she looked after all his needs like a loving and obedient wife does and then broke the sad news of the death of their child in a noble manner. thus, this hadith holds the lesson that it is the foremost duty of a wife that she should serve her husband well and provide comfort and peace of mind to him.

2. it is meritorious for a wife to beautify herself at home for her husband.

3. one who in his trouble is contented with the will of allah, certainly gets a reward for it from him.

4. women can also take part with men in jihad and within the prescribed limits render to mujahidun (warriors in the cause of religion) the services such as dressing of the wounded, welfare of the patients, supply of food, etc.

45. abu hurairah (may allah be pleased with him) reported: messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "the strong man is not one who is good at wrestling, but the strong man is one who controls himself in a fit of rage.''
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary: this hadith instructs oneself to keep in control in order to overcome his rage.

46. sulaiman bin surad (may allah be pleased with him) reported: i was sitting with the prophet (pbuh) when two men began to quarrel and curse each other and the face of one of them turned red and the veins of his neck were swollen (from rage). messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "i know of a word, if he were to utter that, his rage would vanish and that is: a`udhu billahi minash-shaitan nir-rajim (i seek refuge with allah from satan, the accursed).'' so they (companions) said to him: "the prophet (pbuh) tells you to utter: 'i seek refuge with allah from satan, the accursed".
[al-bukhariand muslim].

commentary:  in the event of rage if a person becomes conscious that what he is feeling is a suggestion from satan, he should prevent himself from it; this consciousness is the best remedy to overcome the rage. those who are easily infuriated could make use of this prescription.

47. mu`adh bin anas (may allah be pleased with him) reported: the prophet (pbuh) said, "the one who suppresses anger and has the power to give effect to it, will be called out by allah, the exalted, to the forefront of the creatures on the day of  resurrection and he will be asked to choose any of the virgins (hur) of his liking".
[abu dawud and at-tirmidhi].

commentary: the word `hur' is the plural of `haura', an extremely beautiful woman of fair complexion. the word "ein" is the plural of  "aina", woman with large eyes. both the words stand for the most beautiful women who will be awarded to muslims in jannah. this hadith mentions the distinction and reward of self-control of a man who, in spite of being powerful and having the means to avenge, suppresses his rage and does not exercise his power.

48. abu hurairah (may allah be pleased with him) reported: a man asked the prophet (pbuh) for an advice and he (pbuh) said, "do not get angry". the man repeated that several times and he replied, "do not get angry".

1. rage which is declared objectionable is the one which concerns worldly affairs but that which is for allah and his religion, that is to say, which occurs on the violation of the injunctions of allah, is meritorious and essential.

2. anyone who gets furious quickly should be advised again and again to control his anger so that he becomes conscious of this weakness and tries to overcome it.

3. rage is a means of fulfillment of satanic aims; so it is a great evil and people are advised to make every effort to prevent themselves from this satanic device.

49. abu hurairah (may allah be pleased with him) reported: messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "a muslim, male or female, continues to remain under trial in respect of his life, property and offspring until he faces allah, the exalted, with no sin record".

commentary: we come to know from this hadith that muslims are special targets of trials, but a redeeming feature of these trials is that muslims' sins are pardoned through them provided they remain firm in their faith and patience.

50. ibn `abbas (may allah be pleased with them) reported: 'uyainah bin hisn came to al-madinah and stayed with his nephew hurr bin qais who was among those whom umar (may allah be pleased with him) showed favour to. the knowledgeable people (qurra'), whether they were old or young, had the privilege of joining umar's council and he used to consult them. 'uyainah said to hurr: "my nephew, the leader of the believers shows favour to you. will you obtain permission for me to sit with him?'' hurr asked `umar and he accorded permission. when `uyainah came into the presence of `umar, he addressed him thus: "o son of khattab, you neither bestow much on us nor deal with us justly.'' `umar (may allah be pleased with him) got angry and was about to beat him up when hurr said: ``o leader of the believers, allah said to his prophet (pbuh): ' show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolish (i.e., don't punish them).' (7:199) this one is from the ignorants. when hurr recited this, `umar became quite motionless in his seat. he always adhered strictly to the book of allah.

1. in this hadith, the word `qurra' does not stand for the kind of the `qurra' (reciters) of the present age who are only professional in the art of reciting the qur'an and have a melodious voice, but what it really meant was the class of scholars who were well-versed in its meanings and implications and who could thoroughly distinguish between the lawful and the unlawful, fair and foul. such men used to be the companions of the early noble caliphs. it leads to the conclusion that rulers should choose their advisors from religious scholars and not from those who are given to the world and whose sole aim in life is to amass wealth rather than care about the welfare of the people and whose advice is based on selfish motives and vested interests.

2. since scholarship and piousness are the foremost qualifications for counsellors and advisors, there is no restriction of age for them.

3. the ruler should always be very considerate and tolerant.

4. the ruler should never hesitate from accepting truth and righteousness.

51. ibn mas`ud (may allah be pleased with him) reported: messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "you will see after me favouritism and things which you will disapprove of.'' they submitted: "what do you order us to do (under such circumstances)?'' he replied, "discharge your obligations and ask your rights from allah".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

commentary:  this hadith tells that if you have rulers who deny your rights and give themselves and their relatives preference over you then patience is a better recourse. rather than revolting against them, you should seek pardon and forgiveness from allah and pray for his protection against the mischief and tyranny of the rulers provided they do not show outright disbelief.

52. usaid bin hudhair (may allah be pleased with him) reported that: a person from among the ansar said, "o messenger of allah! you appointed such and such person and why do you not appoint me?'' messenger of allah (pbuh) said, "after me you will see others given preference to you, but you should remain patient till you meet me at the haud (al-kauthar in jannah)".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

1. the prophecy of the prophet (pbuh) came true, which is a miracle as well as an evidence of his truthfulness.

2. the haud (pond) mentioned here is haud al-kauthar which is granted to the prophet (pbuh) in jannah or in the field where people will be assembled on the day of  resurrection. there he will offer his followers cups of pure drink with his own hands. it will be such that one who would take it will never feel thirst again.

3. demand for an office is not a pleasant quality. it is, therefore, prohibited to give office to a person who demands it. it is, however, permissible only in case a person feels that he is more competent than others and there is no one else in view who is more intelligent, capable and pious.

53. `abdullah bin abu aufa (may allah be pleased with him) reported: the messenger of allah (pbuh) at one time when he confronted the enemy, and was waiting for the sun to set, stood up and said, "o people! do not long for encountering  the enemy and supplicate to allah to grant you security. but when you face the enemy, show patience and steadfastness; and keep it in mind that jannah lies under the shade of the swords.'' then he invoked allah, saying, "o allah, revealer of the book, disperser of the clouds, defeater of the confederates, put our enemy to rout and help us in over-powering them".
[al-bukhari and muslim].

1. although great stress has been laid on full preparation and readiness for jihad, it is prohibited to wish for war with enemy.

2. patience is a great weapon of a muslim. in the context of jihad, it means steadfastness, fortitude and fearlessness of death in the battlefield.

3. muslims are ordained not to rely entirely on weapons, material resources and their military prowess. they are advised to pray to allah for victory over their enemy.

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