Hadith 22: (Who amongst you is fasting today?)
Abu Huraira reported that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said:
Who amongst you is fasting today? Abu Bakr said: I am. He (again) said: Who amongst you followed a funeral procession today? Abu Bakr said: I did. He (the Prophet) again said: Who amongst you served food to the needy? Abu Bakr said: I did. He (again) said: Who amongst you has today visited the sick? Abu Bakr said: I did. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: Anyone in whom (these good deeds) are combined will certainly enter paradise.
In another narration by al-Bazzar, it is related that the questions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) were asked after Salatu al-Fajr. In the narration it is mentioned that the charity was a piece of bread which was in the hands of Abdul Rahman bin Abi Bakr, so Abu Bakr took it and gave it to someone begging for help in the mosque. Yet, this narration is graded weak by Al-Albany. However it is authentic without the story of the questioner.
1. “…will certainly enter paradise,” which means entering Paradise without reckoning. Faith is enough to enter Paradise, but the virtuous deeds mentioned in the hadith enable their doer to enter Paradise without any judgment.
2. The good deeds vary in terms of their degree and virtue, they are a reason to increase faith.
3. The believers vary with regard to their virtuous deeds and sincerity.
1. It is permissible to tell others about one’s good deeds while avoiding any hypocrisy or showing off.
2. Replying with the word (I) is not disliked, it is only disliked when it is said to indicate superiority and arrogance such as the case of Satan when he said:
“I am better than he is: You created me from fire and him from clay.” (Surat 7: 12)
It is also disliked when the person describes himself with words such as “I am the scholar, I am the worshipper, I am the devout.”
3. It is permissible to ask for charity in the mosque without persistence or harm such as stepping over people, according to the majority of scholars, while al-Hanafi school of Fiqh adopted the view of total prohibition.
4. It is permissible to give charity in the mosque to the one who asks for it without persistence or harm such as stepping over people, if he urges people, or steps over the worshippers, it is prohibited to give him charity as stated by the majority of scholars because it would encourage him to do such bad deed.
1. The educator should follow up on those under his care, he should ask them about their acts.
2. The Prophet’s method of encouraging them to compete in doing good deeds is by asking them in public.
3. The four acts of worship, which took place in one day, are considered a complete practical educational program. The Parents and educators should put it into practice:
• Fasting teaches self-disciplining because hunger reminds us of the poor and needy, it limits the devil’s insinuations, and makes us mindful that Allah sees us.
• Feeding the needy makes us heedful of Allah’s blessings and provision such as food. You give the poor from Allah’s provision to please Allah Almighty and seek His help to properly worship Him.
• Visiting the sick, that is probably unable to fast, reminds us of the blessing of health and the ability to worship Allah. This gives us a chance to meditate on the change of human condition between strength and weakness.
• Attending a funeral and watching the burial and graves remind us of the extinction and inferiority of the worldly life. It gives the soul a boost to fast, give charity and visit the sick and encourages the person to earn good deeds which would accompany him to his grave, i.e. benefit him in the Hereafter.
1. The hadith shows the virtue of Abu Bakr al-Seddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, and a testimony that he will go to Paradise.
2. Abu Bark al-Seddiq was cautious to please Allah by all means, doing the good deeds ordained by Allah for His people.
3. The virtue of doing these four acts of worship in one day.
4. The four acts of worship happed before al-Fajr prayer; this shows how Abu Bakr hastened to good deeds.
5. A few people earn the virtue of doing the four acts of worship, only Abu Bakr al-Seddiq answered that he accomplished them in one day, hence we should try to catch those few people.
6. To earn the virtue of these four acts of worship, they do not have to happen in the order mentioned in the hadith, they just should be done in one day.
7. The virtue of fasting, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
“No servant (of Allah) fasts on a day (merely) for the sake of Allah except that Allah pushes the Hellfire seventy years further away from his face, due to fasting on this day.” Agreed upon and the wording is from Muslim.
8. The virtue of following a funeral, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
“He who offered prayer over the dead, but did not follow the bier, for him is the reward of one qirat, and he who followed it, for him is the reward of two qirats. It was asked what the qirats were. He said: The smaller amongst the two is equivalent to Uhud.”
9. The virtue of feeding the needy and the poor, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Guard yourselves against the Fire (of Hell) even if it be only with half a date-fruit (given in charity); and if you cannot afford even that, you should at least say a good word.”
10. The virtue of visiting the sick, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
“He who visits the sick continues to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns.”