we conclude this research with the words of alphonse de lamartaine in 'historie de al turquie':
'never has a man set for himself, voluntarily or involuntarily, a more sublime aim, since this aim was superhuman; to subvert superstitions which had been imposed between man and his creator, to render god unto man and man unto god; to restore the rational and sacred idea of divinity amidst the chaos of the material and disfigured gods of idolatry, then existing. never has a man undertaken a work so far beyond human power with so feeble means, for he (muhammad) had in the conception as well as in the execution of such a great design, no other instrument than himself and no other aid except a handful of men living in a corner of the desert. finally, never has a man accomplished such a huge and lasting revolution in the world, because in less than two centuries after its appearance, islam, in faith and in arms, reigned over the whole of arabia, and conquered, in god's name, persia khorasan, transoxania, western india, syria, egypt, abyssinia, all the known continent of northern africa, numerous islands of the mediterranean sea, spain, and part of gaul. "if greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astonishing results are the three criteria of a human genius, who could dare compare any great man in history with muhammad? the most famous men created arms, laws, and empires only. they founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled away before their eyes. this man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples, dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and the souls. "on the basis of a book, every letter which has become law, he created a spiritual nationality which blends together peoples of every tongue and race. he has left the indelible characteristic of this muslim nationality the hatred of false gods and the passion for the one and immaterial god. this avenging patriotism against the profanation of heaven formed the virtue of the followers of muhammad; the conquest of one-third the earth to the dogma was his miracle; or rather it was not the miracle of man but that of reason. "the idea of the unity of god, proclaimed amidst the exhaustion of the fabulous theogonies, was in itself such a miracle that upon it's utterance from his lips it destroyed all the ancient temples of idols and set on fire one-third of the world. his life, his meditations, his heroic reveling against the superstitions of his country, and his boldness in defying the furies of idolatry, his firmness in enduring them for fifteen years in mecca, his acceptance of the role of public scorn and almost of being a victim of his fellow countrymen: all these and finally, his flight, his incessant preaching, his wars against odds, his faith in his success and his superhuman security in misfortune, his forbearance in victory, his ambition, which was entirely devoted to one idea and in no manner striving for an empire; his endless prayers, his mystic conversations with god, his death and his triumph after death; all these attest not to an imposture but to a firm conviction which gave him the power to restore a dogma. this dogma was twofold the unity of god and the immateriality of god: the former telling what god is, the latter telling what god is not; the one overthrowing false gods with the sword, the other starting an idea with words. "philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational beliefs....the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire that is muhammad. as regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?'