The new things that invalidate the fast - Part I
The new things that invalidate the fast - Part I
Praise be to Allah and peace be upon the Seal of prophets.
When Sheikh Khalid ibn `Ali Al Mushayqih (may Allah protect him) completed his explanation to the chapter of Fasting from Zad Al Mustaqna` book, he started to demonstrate some of the contemporary things that invalidate the fast. He spoke in length about those things and explained the preponderant views of scholars. May Allah reward him and bring benefits for the Muslims of his knowledge I ask Allah to make this work purely for His Sake for He is the Most Generous.
P.S. This article was presented to the Sheikh to correct and approve it and he did so.
Written by: `Isa ibn `Abdul-Rahman Al `Itiby
Contemporary things that invalidate the fast: Muftirat is the plural form of Muftir (things that invalidate the fast).
Scholars have unanimously agreed on four things which invalidate the fast, these are:
1 - Eating.
2 - Drinking.
3 - Sexual intercourse.
4 - Menstruation and Post-childbirth.
As for eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse, Allah (Exalted be He) explained them in the following Ayah: “So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allâh has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall.”
These things are also explained in the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that was reported by Al Bukhari on the authority of `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her): "Is not it true if a woman has her menses (reached the puberty age), she will neither offer Salah nor fast?" (This is a clear explanation to the fourth item that invalidates the fast.) The meaning of the new things that invalidate the fast is the new invented items that take the same ruling of food, drink, and so on; and they are numerous:
The first item is: The Mouth Sprayer:
It is a bottle that is filled with a liquid medicine. This medicine contains three elements: water, oxygen, and some pharmaceuticals. Does this spray invalidate the fast or not?
The Contemporary scholars have disagreed in this regard:
1 – Some of them say: It does not break the fasting, which is the view of Sheikh `Abdul-`Aziz ibn Baz (may Allah have mercy on his soul), Sheikh Ibn `Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on his soul), Sheikh `Abdullah ibn Jibrin (may Allah protect him), and the Permanent Committee for Fatwas.
They all quoted the following as evidence:
A – It is permissible for the fasting person to rinse his mouth and nose, this unanimously agreed upon, and when he does so, the trace of water will mix with the saliva and enters the stomach. Likewise, the traces of the nose sprayer which will enter the stomach because it is a very small amount, therefore it takes the same ruling of water that remains after rinsing the mouth. The bottle contains 10 ml of liquid medicine; and that amount was designed for 200-time usage, so one spray equals half of one-tenth ml, which is extremely tiny.
B – The possibility that the spray reaches the stomach is doubted and the general rule is to depend on the original rule until we make sure that fasting is invalidated.
C – Mouth spray does not look like eating or drinking, but it looks like the aspiration of blood for analysis and using the non-nutritious needles.
D – Doctors have mentioned that Miswak (small branches of the Arc tree) contains eight chemicals substances, however, its use is permissible for the fasting person according to the preponderant view of scholars. No doubt, something of these substances will reach the stomach, hence, the liquid medicine is like these overlooked substances.
The Second view is: It is not permissible for the fasting person to use the mouth sprayer, and if he needs it, he may take it and compensate for that day. They quoted the following as evidence: If the content of the spray bottle reaches the stomach through the mouth, a person had broken his fast. The answer is: If we make sure that something will reach the stomach from these substances, it takes the same ruling of the remnant water of rinsing because it is so little, so the soundest view is the first.
The second item is: The bills that are placed under the tongue:
They are the bills that are placed under the tongue to treat some heart attacks. They are absorbed directly in the mouth and the blood carries them to the heart, causing the heart attack to cease at once. Their ruling: They are permissible because nothing of these bills reach the stomach, but they are absorbed immediately inside the mouth, so they do not break the fast.
The third item is: The Gastroscope:
It is a medical device that is inserted through the mouth to the pharynx then to the esophagus, then to the stomach. Its usage: it is to photo the stomach ulcers or eradicate some parts of the stomach for examination or other medical matters.
The former scholars had spoken about this device before when they discussed the issue of inserting non-nutritious item such as a pebble or a piece of iron enters into the stomach? The scope takes the same ruling, so will it break the fast or not?
The majority of scholars adopt the view of: such a thing invalidates the fast because anything reaches the stomach invalidates the fast. However, the Hanafi School of Fiqh stipulated that the thing should settle down in the stomach in order to consider it breaker of the fast, although the rest school of Fiqh did not stipulate this. They quoted as evidence that the Prophet (peace be upon him) command his nation not to use kohl. Based upon this, the stomach scope invalidates the fast according to the majority of scholars and does not break the fast according to the Hanafi School because it does not settle down in the stomach.
The Second opinion is: the non-nutritious items that reach the stomach do not break the fast. This is the view of Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on his soul), the view of some Maliki scholars, and the view of Al Hasan ibn Salih because the Qur’an as well as the Sunnah stated that the items that invalidate the fast must be nutritious. As for the Hadith of Kohl in which the Messenger (peace be upon him) commanded his nation to avoid the usage of Kohl during the Fast, it is a weak Hadith, so it does not break the fast. There is one exception which is if a doctor puts a nutritious substance to facilitate the insertion of the scope; in this case it invalidates the fast.
The fourth item that invalidates the fast is: The Eye Drop:
that is used through the nose; does it invalidate the fast or not? The later scholars have two views in this regard:
The first view is: it breaks the fast according to Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on their souls).
They quoted the Hadith of Luqayt ibn Sabrah as evidence: "Over exaggerate in sniffing the nose except if you are fasting." This is an evidence that the nose is the entrance of the stomach. If this is the case, then the Prophet (peace be upon him) prohibited the use of eye drop. The forbiddance of the Prophet (peace be upon him) of excessive sniffing includes also the prohibition of inserting anything inside the nose even if this thing is so little because what goes inside the nose due to the over exaggeration of sniffing is so little.
The Second opinion is: it does not break the fast.
They quoted the following as evidence: By analogy to the remnant water after rinsing the mouth, the remnant of the drops is so little, therefore it takes the same ruling.
One drop equals 0.06 per cubic centimeter. These drops enter the nose and only so little amount reaches the stomach and that small amount is overlooked. Moreover, the general rule is the validity of the fast unless there is a hard evidence to annul it. Certainty cannot be removed with uncertainty. Both views are strong.
The fifth item is: The Nasal Spray:
The same as the mouth spray, so the Nasal spray does not break the fast.
The sixth item is: Anesthesia:
It includes many types:
First: The partial anesthesia through the nose: A patient smells gaseous substance that affects his nerves and causing anesthesia: this kind does not break the fast because the gaseous substance that enters the nose is not nutritious.
Second: The partial Chinese anesthesia:
In relation to China: This is done by inserting a dry needle into the centers of senses under the skin causing some glands to produce the natural morphine which is included in the body, thereby a patient loses sense. This kind of anesthesia does not affect the fast as long as it is partial, not general, and because the substance does not reach the stomach.
Third: The partial anesthesia by injection:
Injecting a vein with a short-acting drug to cover the mind of the patient in a few seconds. As long as it is partial, it does not break the fast and because it does not reach the stomach.
Fourth: The total anesthesia:
It is controversial among scholars: the former scholars discussed that issue of whether the fast of the person who enters into a coma valid or invalid?
First: to pass out all the day where a person does not wake up even part of the day: the fast of that person is invalid according to the majority of scholars. The evidence of this case is the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the divine Hadith: "He abandons his food and desire for My Sake.” So, he ascribed abstaining to the fasting person; and the one who is in coma is not included in this.
Second: If a person does not pass out all day, this is a controversial matter. The soundest view is: If a person wakes up part of the day, his fast is valid; this is the view of Imam Ahmad and Ash-Shafi`i. According to Imam Malik, his fasting is not valid. According to Abu Hanifah, if a person wakes up before the decline of the sun, a person may renew the intention and the fast will be valid. The soundest view is of Ahmad and Ash-Shafi`i because the intention of abstention from food and drink was achieved by fasting part of the day. The same ruling goes for anesthesia.
The seventh item is: The Ear Drops:
The meaning is: "pharmaceuticals" are poured in the ear; does it invalidate the fast or not? Scholars had spoken in the past about the issue of “the ruling of a person who treats himself by pouring water into his ear."
According to the majority of scholars, it invalidates the fast. According to the view of the Hanbali school of Fiqh, it invalidates the fast. The second opinion is of Ibn Hazm, who considered it from the things that do not break the fast. His proof is: the eardrops do not reach the brain directly but it reaches through the pores.
Modern medicine demonstrates that there is no canal between the ear and the brain to bear the fluid except in one case which is if there is a hole in the eardrum. According to this, the soundest opinion is: it does not break the fast. A case: If there is a hole in the eardrum, the treatment should be taken through the ear. In this case, it takes the same ruling of taking medicine through the nose as was previously mentioned.
Dr. Khalid ibn `Ali Al Mushayqih