The new things that invalidate the fast - Part II
The new things that invalidate the fast - Part II
The eight item is: The Ear Lotion:
It takes the same ruling of the ear drop, but scholars said: If the ear drum is breached, the quantity that will enter the ear invalidates the fast. The ear lotion is divided into two sections:
1 - If the eardrum is present, it does not break the fast.
2 - If the eardrum is breached, it invalidates the fast because the quantity of the liquid will be a lot.
The ninth item is: The Eye Drop:
It is a controversial matter between the later scholars based upon a previous disagreement which is the case of Kohl; does it invalidate the fast or not? The first view is: it does not break the fast. This is the view of the Hanafi and the Shafi`i schools of Fiqh. They quoted as evidence that there is no connection between the eye and the stomach and if this is the case, applying Kohl does not break the fast. The second opinion is of the Maliki and the Hanbali school of Fiqh that Kohl invalidates the fast because they said that there is a connection between the eye and the stomach. Thereby, the later scholars differed according to the eye drops:
The first view is: the eye drops does not break the fast. This is the view of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on their souls). They quoted as evidence that one eye drop equals 0.06 per cubic centimeter. This amount will not reach the stomach because it is so little. The tiny thing is overlooked exactly as the remnant of water that remains in the mouth after rinsing. The second evidence is: the eye drop is not stated in the Qur’an or in the Sunnah and does not take the same ruling of food and drink.
The second opinion is: it invalidates the fast exactly as the kohl. The soundest opinion is: it does not break the fast. Although modern medicine proved that there is a connection between the eye and the stomach through the nose, these drops will be absorbed when passing by the lacrimal canal, so nothing of these drops will reach the throat, consequently nothing will reach the stomach. If something reaches the stomach, it will be tiny and will be overlooked as the remnant water of rinsing is overlooked.
By analogy to the case of kohl, this is not true for the following:
1 - Because it was not proved that it invalidates the fast and the reported Hadith in that regard is weak.
2 - It is an analogy for something controversial in the first place.
3 – Because of the stated proofs to the first opinion.
The tenth Item is: Therapeutic Injections:
They include the following:
1 – Cutaneous injection.
2 – Intramuscular injections.
3 – Intravenous injection.
As for the non-nutritious cutaneous and intramuscular injections, they do not break the fast according to the modern scholars, as Ibn Baz and ibn `Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on their souls) stated. The proof to that is: The general rule is the fast until something invalidates it and these injections are not food, drink, or something of the like.
As for the nutritious intravenous injection, it is a matter of dispute among scholars:
The first view is it invalidates the fast: This is the view of Sheikh As-Sa`dy, Ibn Baz, Ibn `Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on their souls), and the Islamic Fiqh Academy. The evidence to that is: it is similar to food and drink, so the one who takes these injections will be in no need for food and drink.
The second opinion: it does not break the fast because they do not reach the stomach through the usual outlets. Assuming they reach the stomach, they reach through the pores, and that is not the stomach and is not similar to the stomach. The soundest view is: they invalidate the fast because the reason is not reaching the stomach but achieving nutrition which is done by these injections. A case: The injections that a diabetic takes do not break the fast.
The eleventh item is: Ointments, creams, and therapeutic stickers:
The skin contains blood vessels that absorb anything that is placed on through the capillaries which is a very slow process. Based upon this, does anything is placed on the skin invalidate the fast? Shaykh Al Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on his soul) discussed this issue and said that they do not break the fast and this is the view of the Islamic Fiqh Academy, moreover some scholars reported consensus in this regard.
The twelfth item is: Artery Catheterization:
It is a fine tube that enters the arteries for the treatment or photography. The Islamic Fiqh Academy adopted the view that they do not break the fast because it is not similar to food, drink, or anything of the like.
The thirteenth item is: Dialysis:
It has two ways:
First: Washing by a machine called the "artificial kidney" where the blood is drawn to the device, then it filters the blood from the harmful substances, then the blood go back to the body again through the vein. During this process, a patient needs nutritious liquids that are taken through the vein.
Second: Through the peritoneal dialysis membrane in the stomach:
A small tube is injected into the stomach through a hole above the navel, and two liters of liquids contain a high percentage of sugar inside the stomach for a while then the liquids are drawn again; this process is done repeatedly. Modern scholars disagreed whether it invalidates the fast or not?
The first view is: it invalidates the fast according to Ibn Baz (may Allah have mercy on his soul) and the Permanent Committee for Fatwas.
Their evidence is: dialysis provides fresh blood for the blood, and perhaps it is mixed with another nutritious material, so two things that invalidate the fast were brought together.
The second opinion is: it does not break the fast. They hold as evidence that it is not mentioned by name in the Qur’an or in the Sunnah or even similar. The soundest view is: it invalidates the fast.
A case: if only the blood is purified, it does not break the fast, but the fact is there are some nutrients, salts, and so on are added to dialysis.
The fourteenth item is: suppositories that are inserted into a woman's vagina:
Likewise: the vaginal lotions. Do these things invalidate the fast or not?
Scholars have spoken about these substances in the past as well as in the present: According to the Maliki and the Hanbali school of Fiqh if a woman dripped a fluid in her vagina, it will not break the fast. Their evidence is: There is no connection between a woman's vagina and her stomach. The second view is of the Hanafi and the Shafi`i school of Fiqh which maintains that if a woman drips some liquid into her vagina, her fast is over. Their evidence is: there is a connection between the bladder and the vagina. Modern medicine proved that there is no outlet between the reproductive system of women and their stomachs; hence these drops will not break the fast.
The fifteenth item is: Suppositories that are taken through the anus:
They are used for various medical purposes such as to reduce body temperature and to relieve the pain of hemorrhoids. The same ruling goes for the enemas.
First, the enemas: Scholars have spoken about in the past:
The Four leaders of the Fiqh schools adopted the view that these injections invalidate the fast because they reach the stomach.
The second opinion is of the Zhahiry School and the chosen view of Shaykh Al Islam Ibn Taymiyah is: these injections do not break the fast because they are not nutritious by any mean, but they drain out everything in the body as if a person smells laxatives and because this fluid does not reach the stomach. As for the later scholars, they based their views on the previous disagreement. Is there a connection between the anus and the stomach?! The scholars, who adopted the view that they invalidate the fast, say that there is a connection because the anus is connected with the rectum and the rectum is connected with the colon (the gut). The absorption of the food is done through the small intestine, and perhaps it is done through the absorption of some salts and sugars. As if non-nutritious substances are absorbed, such as medicine, it will not break the fast because they do not contain food or water. This detail is the closest to believe.
Second: The anal suppositories are controversial:
It does not break the fast, which is the view of Ibn `Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on his soul) because they contain therapeutic medication; not liquid food, so they are not food, drink, nor anything of the like. This is the correct view.
The sixteenth item is: The Anal Scope:
The doctor may insert the telescope into the anus to reveal the intestine, and the same details mentioned in the stomach scope are applied here.
The seventeenth item is: anything that enters the body through the urethra, such as scope, solution, or medicine: Do this break the fast? Scholars have discussed this issue in the past and reached the following conclusion:
The first view is of the Hanafi, the Maliki, and the Hanbali school of Fiqh: Dripping in the urethra does not break the fast even if it reaches the bladder. Their evidence is: there is no outlet the inner part of the rectum and the abdomen.
The Second view is the chosen by the Shafi`i school of Fiqh that this action invalidates the fast because there is an outlet between the inner part of the rectum and the abdomen.
In modern medicine:
There is no connection between urinary tract and the digestive system: based upon this, it does not break the fast.
The eighteenth item: Blood Donation:
This is based on the issue of cupping. The popular view is: it invalidates the fast and that is the chosen view of Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on his soul). The view of the majority scholars is: it does not break the fast.
The soundest and preponderant view is: it invalidates the fast. Based on this, it is not permissible for a person to donate his blood during the fast except if there is a necessity.
The nineteenth item is: Taking a Blood Sample For Diagnosis:
This does not break the fast because it is not the same as cupping, because cupping weakens the body.
The twenty item is: Toothpaste:
It does not break the fast because it does not reach the stomach, but it is better for a person not to use it except after breaking the fast. It is enough to use the Miswak or the brush without the toothpaste. Allah knows the best.
Dr. Khalid ibn `Ali Al Mushayqih