The Items of the Treaty
when quraish saw the firm determination of the muslims to shed the last drop of blood for the defence of their faith, they came to their senses and realized that muhammad’s followers could not be cowed down by these tactics. after some further interchange of messages they agreed to conclude a treaty of reconciliation and peace with the muslims. the clauses of the said treaty go as follows:
- the muslims shall return this time and come back next year, but they shall not stay in makkah for more than three days.
- they shall not come back armed but can bring with them swords only sheathed in scabbards and these shall be kept in bags.
- war activities shall be suspended for ten years, during which both parties will live in full security and neither will raise sword against the other.
- if anyone from quraish goes over to muhammad [pbuh] without his guardian’s permission, he should be sent back to quraish, but should any of muhammad’s followers return to quraish, he shall not be sent back.
- whosoever wishes to join muhammad [pbuh], or enter into treaty with him, should have the liberty to do so; and likewise whosoever wishes to join quraish, or enter into treaty with them, should be allowed to do so.
some dispute arose with regard to the preamble. for example, when the agreement was to be committed to writing, ‘ali bin abi talib, who acted as a scribe began with the words: bismillâh ir-rahman ir-raheem, i.e., "in the name of allâh, the most beneficent, the most merciful" but the makkan plenipotentiary, suhail bin ‘amr declared that he knew nothing about ar-rahman and insisted upon the customary formula bi-ismika allâhumma, i.e., "in your name, o allâh!" the muslims grumbled with uneasiness but the prophet [pbuh] agreed. he then went on to dictate, "this is what muhammad, the messenger of allâh has agreed to with suhail bin ‘amr." upon this suhail again protested: "had we acknowledged you as prophet, we would not have debarred you from the sacred house, nor fought against you. write your own name and the name of your father." the muslims grumbled as before and refused to consent to the change. the prophet [pbuh], however, in the larger interest of islam, attached no importance to such an insignificant detail, erased the words himself, and dictated instead: "muhammad, the son of ‘abdullah." soon after this treaty, khuza‘a clan, a former ally of banu hashim, joined the ranks of muhammad [pbuh], and banu bakr sided with quraish.