all praise and thanks are due to allāh, creator of the heavens and the earth, and light and darkness, gatherer of mankind for the final judgment so that the righteous may attain success and the wretched may attain misery. i testify that none has the right to be worshipped save allāh, the one who has no partner, a testification given such that the person who says it may attain bliss on the day of judgment. peace and blessings be upon the master of the messengers and prophets, muhammad, his family and his noble companions.
this is a brief treatise dealing with various aspects of the life of our master and prophet, the chosen one, muhammad (saw), no muslim should be unaware of these. may allāh cause us to benefit through it and all those who read it and hear it.
he (saw) is: abū’l-qāsim muhammad ibn `abdullāh ibn `abdu’l-muţţalib ibn hāshim ibn `abd-manāf ibn qu’ayy ibn kilāb ibn murrah ibn ka`b ibn lu’ayy ibn ghālib ibn fihr ibn mālik ibn al-na’r ibn kinānah ibn khuzaymah ibn mudrikah ibn ilyās ibn mudar ibn nizār ibn ma`add ibn `adnān ibn adad ibn al-muqawwim ibn nāhūr ibn tayrah ibn ya`rub ibn yashjub ibn nābit ibn ismā`īl ibn ibrāhīm, the khalīl of al-rahmān, ibn tārih - who is Āzir ibn nāhūr ibn sārū` ibn rā`ū ibn fālikh ibn `aybar ibn shālikh ibn arfakhshad ibn sām ibn nūh ibn lamk ibn mutūshalk ibn akhnūkh - who is idrīs, the prophet as some say, he was the first of the children of Ādam to be granted prophethood and the first to write with the pen - ibn yarid ibn mihlīl ibn qaynan ibn yānish ibn shayth ibn Ādam, upon him be peace.
this was the lineage mentioned by muhammad ibn ishāq ibn yasār al-madanī. the lineage up to the point of `adnān is agreed upon as being authentic, after this there is a difference of opinion. the quraysh are the children of fihr ibn mālik and it is postulated, nadr ibn kinānah.
his mother was `Āminah bint wahb ibn `abd-manāf ibn zuhrah ibn kilāb ibn murrah ibn ka`b ibn lu’ayy ibn ghālib.
the messenger of allāh (saw) was born in mecca in the year of the elephant on monday, 2nd rabī` al-awwal. some people said he was born thirty years after the year of the elephant and others said forty years but the correct opinion is that he was born in the year of the elephant.
the death of his father, mother and grandfather
his father, `abdullāh ibn `abdu’l-muţţalib, died when he was twenty eight-months old; some said he was seven months old and others said he died in dār al-nābighah while his mother was yet pregnant with him. it is also said that he died at al-abwā’ which falls between mecca and madīnah.
abū `abdullāh al-zubair ibn bakkār al-zubayri said, ‘he died in madīnah when the messenger of allāh (saw) was two months old.’
his mother died when he was four years old and his grandfather, `abdu’l-muţţalib, when he was eight. it is also said that his mother died when he was six years old.
he (saw) was fostered, along with hamzah ibn `abdu’l-muţţalib and abū salamah `abdullāh ibn `abdu’l-asad al-makhzūmī, by thuwaybah the slave of abu jahl, with the milk that came on account of her son, masrūh.
he (saw) was then fostered by halīmah bint abū dhu’ayb al-sa`diyyah.
jubayr ibn muţ`im reports that the messenger of allāh (saw) said, “i am muhammad and i am ahmad. i am al-māhī (the effacer) through whom allāh will efface disbelief and i am al-hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet man will be resurrected. i am al-`Āqib (the last) after whom there will be no prophet.” the hadīth is ‘ahīh and agreed upon.
abū mūsā `abdullāh ibn qays reported, ‘the messenger of allāh (saw) mentioned his names to us, some of which we have remembered. he said, “i am muhammad and i am ahmad. i am al-muqaffī (the tracker), nabī al-tawbah (the prophet of repentance) and nabī al-rahmah (the prophet of mercy)” and in another version, “nabī al-malhamah (the prophet of slaughter).” it is ‘ahīh and recorded by muslim.
jābir ibn `abdullāh reports that the messenger of allāh (saw) said, “i am muhammad and i am ahmad. i am al-hāshir and i am al-māhī through whom allāh would efface disbelief. on the day of rising the banner of praise will be with me and i will be the imām of the messengers and the one who will intercede for them.”
in his book, allāh, mighty and magnificent, called him ‘a giver of glad tidings’, ‘a warner’, ‘gentle’, ‘merciful’ and ‘a mercy to the worlds’.
his upbringing in mecca, his journey to syria and his marriage to khadījah
the messenger of allāh (saw) grew up an orphan in mecca under the care of his grandfather, `abdu’l-muţţalib, and after his death, his uncle abū tālib. allāh, most high, purified him from the filth of jāhiliyyah, from every lowly quality and graced him with every lofty trait to the extent that he was known by his people as al-amīn because of his sincerity, trustworthiness, truthfulness and purity.
at the age of twelve he left on a journey with his uncle, abū Ţālib, to syria. when they arrived at bu’rah he came to the attention of the monk, bahīrah, who recognised him from his features and characteristics. he came, took him by his hand and said, ‘this is the master of the worlds, the messenger of the lord of the worlds, he has been sent as a mercy to the worlds.’ when he was asked how he knew this, he replied, ‘when you came down from the mountain path, there was not a single rock or tree except that it fell prostrate and they only prostrate to a prophet; we find him mentioned in our books.’ he then asked abū Ţālib to take him back for fear of the jews.
he also left a second time for the market of buşrah, this time with maysirah, the slave of khadījah (ra), in order to trade on her behalf before their marriage. at the age of twenty-five he married khadījah (as).
at the age of forty, allāh honoured him with his grace and commissioned him to convey his message. jibrīl (as) came to him while he was in the cave of hirā, a mountain in mecca. he then remained in mecca for thirteen years, some say fifteen years and others ten, but the correct opinion is the first. while in mecca, he would pray towards bayt al-maqdis but would never set his back towards the ka`bah, always praying with it in front of him. when in madīnah he also prayed towards bayt al-maqdis for the first seventeen or sixteen months.
after the stay in mecca, he migrated to madīnah, being accompanied by abū bakr al-Şiddīq (ra) and his freed-slave, `Āmir ibn fuhayrah. their guide was `abdullāh ibn al-urayqiţ al-laythī, a disbeliever and it is not known that he accepted islām. he remained in madīnah for ten years.
his (saw) death
he died at the age of sixty-three, some said sixty-five and others sixty but the first opinion is correct. he passed away on monday, 12th rabī` al-awwal, when the heat of the morning sun became severe. it is also said that he passed away on the 2nd of rabī` al-awwal or the beginning of rabī` al-awwal. he was buried on wednesday night and it is also said tuesday night. the duration of his final illness was twelve days and it is also said fourteen days.
he was washed by `alī ibn abū Ţālib; his uncle, al-`abbās; al-fadl ibn al-`abbās; qutham ibn al-`abbās; usāmah ibn zayd and shuqrān. aws ibn khawlā al-anşārī was also present. he was wrapped in three white sheets from sahūl, yemen, none of which was a shirt or turban. the people then entered in groups, [praying the funeral prayer], with none of them leading. a cloth of red velvet was placed in the grave under him (saw) and al-`abbās, `alī, al-fadl, qutham and shuqrān entered the grave and constructed nine sun dried bricks over him. he was buried in the place in which he died, around the area of his bed, in his house, the house of `Ā’ishah, then abū bakr (ra), then `umar (ra) were buried alongside him.
he (saw) had three sons:
- al-qāsim, after whom he was given his honorific (kunyā). he was born to him while in mecca, before his prophethood and died at the age of two. qatādah said that he lived until the age he was able to walk.
- `abdullāh, who was also called Ţayyib and Ţāhir because he was born in the age of islām. it is also said that Ţayyib and Ţāhir were two of his other sons but the correct opinion is the first.
- ibrāhīm, he was born in madīnah and died there in the tenth year of hijrah at the age of seventeen or eighteen months.
it is also said that he had a son who he called `abdu’l-`uzzah, but allāh purified him and protected him from such things.
his daughters were:
- zaynab, he married her to abu al-`Āş ibn al-rabī` ibn `abdu’l-`uzzah ibn `abd shams, the son of her maternal aunt. his mother was hālah bint khuwaylid. born to her was `alī who died in infancy and umāmah who the prophet (saw) would carry in prayer. `ali married her after the death of fāţimah.
- fāţimah, he married her to `alī ibn abū Ţālib. born to her were al-hasan and al-husayn and al-muhsin who died in infancy.
- ruqayyah, she married `uthmān ibn `affān and later passed away after which he married his (saw) other daughter,
- umm kulthūm, who also later passed away. to ruqayyah was born `abdullāh after whom `uthmān took his honorific.
there is no difference that he had four daughters, and he had three sons according to the correct opinion.
al-qāsim was the first to be born to him followed by zaynab, ruqayyah, fāţimah, umm kulthūm. then in the time of islām, `abdullāh and ibrāhīm in madīnah. all of his children were from khadījah save ibrāhīm who was from mary the copt. all of his children died before him save fāţimah who lived six months after him.
 this is the amount that bukhārī mentioned in his Şahīh.
cf. ibn hajr, fath [7/162] and ibn al-qayyim, zād al-ma`ād [1/71].
the majority of the scholars hold the opinion that the prophet’s father died while he was still in his mothers’ womb. amongst them were ibn al-qayyim, ibn kathīr, dhahabī, ibn hajr and ibn al-jawzī.
hākim [2/605] reports from qays bin mukhrimah; from his father; from his grandfather that, ‘the messenger of allāh’sfather died while his mother was still pregnant with him.’ hākim said that it was şahīh, meeting the criteria of muslim and dhahabī agreed.
cf. ibn kathīr, al-bidāyah wa’l-nihāyah [2/322-323]; dhahabī, al-sīrah [p. 50]; ibn hajr [7/163]; al-wafā bi ahwāl al-muşţafā [1/153].
 at al-abwa’, a place falling between mecca and madīnah as per `abdu’l-razzāq [5/318]
 bukhārī [#3532, 4896] and muslim [#2354]
 muslim [#2355] the other version is recorded by ahmad [4/395. 404, 407] and declared şahīh by ibn hibbān [#6314]
 Ţabarānī, al-kabīr. haythamī, al-majma` [8/284] states that its isnād contains a weak narrator.
ibn hajr [6/164] stated that he (saw) was forty years and six monthsold when revelation came to him. this is by taking into consideration the narration established in the şahīh stating that he was commissioned at the turn of the fortieth year,that revelation first came to him in the month of ramadān and the famous position that he was born in rabī` al-awwal.
 bukhārī [#3536, 4466] and muslim [#2349]
the scholars are agreed that the prophet (saw) passed away in 11h, they have agreed that he passed away in the month of rabī` al-awwal and that it was on a monday, this agreement almost reaching the point of consensus. however, the scholars have differed as to the date that he passed away, giving the following dates, the 1st, 2nd, 8th, 12th, 13th and others.
cf. ibn hajr [/129-130], ibn kathīr [5/275-277], dhahabī [p. 568], ibn rajab, laţā’if al-ma`ārif [p. 113].
ibn kathīr [5/291] said, ‘the correct opinion is that he remained unburied the whole of monday, tuesday and was buried on the night of wednesday... his burial occurred on the night of wednesday, and this is the opinion that has been textually reported from more than one imām, both the earlier and later.’
ibn hajr [8/129] said, ‘there is a difference concerning how long his illness lasted with the majority taking to the opinion that it lasted thirteen days. it is also mentioned that it was fourteen or twelve days.’
 ibn kathīr [5/286] quotes a consensus on this.
 i.e. having a child with such a name