Three Common Mistakes made after Prayer - II
Three Common Mistakes made after Prayer - II
2. Prostrating to Supplicate after the Prayer is Over:
There has come to pass a custom of the people, in which they prostrate themselves in supplication, after the prayer is over. And it is not known if this extra prostration has any basis to it, for it has not been reported on the Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) or any of his companions. Rather, it is best to supplicate during one's prayer, based on the established reports regarding that. This is what the author of the book An-Nutmahhas stated. And Abu Shaamah quotes him, saying: "The act of the prostrating -which serves as a way of getting close to Allaah -duringprayer, does not necessitate that it serves the same purpose outside of prayer, as is the case with bowing."
Al-'Izz Ibn'Abd-is-Salaam (rahimahullaah) said: "The Divine Law does not mention that one can attain nearness to Allah with a particularized prostration. And there is no purpose in doing that, for indeed, the nearness that is gained from it, has causes, conditions, time constraints and foundations, of which it would notbe valid in their absence. So just as one does not draw close to Allaah by stopping at 'Arafah and Muzdalifah, casting the pebbles and walking around As-Safaa and Al-Marwa, without having slaughtered a sacrifice in its due time along with its causes and conditions, then similarly, one does not draw close to Allaah with a particularized prostration. And this is in spite of it's being an act of worship, unless there is a valid reason to do it. Likewise, one can not draw close to Allaah by observing fast and prayer at every place and during every time." 
In conclusion: This Religion does not mention anything about drawing closer to Allaah with the prostration, except in the prayer or due to a specific valid reason, such as forgetfulness (sujood-us-sahw), thankfulness or when reciting an ayah of prostration.
Abul-Mu'aalee, the Imaam of the Haramain, Al-Ghazaalee and others have forsaken these two prostrations. In fact, Al-Ghazaalee said: "No one held the opinion that the prostration, by itself, required a separate vow." 
The origin of this innovation comes from what some of the Sufis held in that it is preferable for every one that is praying to do that after the prayer is over, in order to coerce oneself, due to the heart's forgetfulness while in prayer. This is since no heart is void of forgetfulness during prayer, even if it is just for a moment. And they held that forgetfulness for the most part came from the Devil. Thus one should not reprimand himself, except with an attribute that the Devil cannot approach the servant in.
And there is no doubt that the Devil is the one that has indeed whispered this innovation to them, by causing them to have love for innovating into the Religion. And since the essence of the prayer is to strictly follow (what is stated in the texts), the scholars have ruled that this is an innovation.
3. Making Tasbeeh and Du'aa in Congregation while Disturbing those Praying:
It is not from the Sunnah for people to sit together after the prayer in order to recite some remembrances (dhikr) or supplications (du'aa) - those that have been reported or those that have not been reported - by raising the voice and joining in unison. This act has become the normal custom in some lands, even to the point that this tradition has become accepted, by the people, as being one of the trademarks of the Religion. It is such that anyone who abandons it or forbids others from doing it is renounced, whereas renouncing that it be abandoned is what is truly evil.
The author of As-Sunan wal-Mubtadi'aat said: "Supplicating to Allaah for forgiveness in congregation, in one unified voice, after finishing the prayer is an innovation. Likewise, their saying after the supplication: "O Most Merciful of those who show mercy, have mercy on us" (Yaa Arhamar-Raahimeen Arhamnaa) in congregation is an innovation. Connecting the optional prayer with the obligatory prayer without there being a period of division between the two is forbidden, as occurs in the hadeeth of Muslim. Reciting Al-Faatihahan extra time in honor of the Prophet is an innovation. The people's gathering together, after the morning prayer is finished, in order to say: "O Allaah, save me from the Hellfire" seven times is an innovation. Similarly, their adding after this: "… and from the torment of the Hellfire, by Your grace, O All-Mighty, O All-Forgiving" is an innovation." 
Ash-Shaatibee (rahimahullaah) said: "The Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not used to say the supplication and the remembrances out loud immediately after prayer, all the time. Nor did he openly demonstrate doing it to the people, other than a time when it was done for the purpose of educating. This is because if he ha d done it and openly displayed it all of the time, it would have been from the Sunnahand the scholars would not have said that it is not from the Sunnah to do it, since its particularities, according to what they have stated, consist of its continuity an dits being done out loud amidst the congregation of people. And it should not be said: 'Had his supplication been done silently, it would nothave been memorized from him', for we will respond: 'Whoever is accustomed to doing it silently, then it will definitely be exhibited from him, either because of its habit or because of his efforts to warn about its becoming obligatory." 
This is as has been reported in Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree on Ibn 'Abbaas that he (radyAllaahu ‘anhu)) said: "Indeed, raising the voice whilst reciting dhikr, when the people would finish performing the congregational prayers, was done at the time of the Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam)." 
Imaam An-Nawawee (rahimahullaah) said: "Ash-Shaafi'ee understood this hadeeth to mean that they would raise their voices with it for a short period of time, for the purpose of honoring the attribute of dhikr. It did not mean that they would say it out loud all the time. The best opinion is that the Imaam and the ones following him in prayer should recite the dhikrin low voices (after prayer), unless there is aneed to educate others (by saying it loudly)." 
Ibn Bataal said: "It is stated in Al-'Utbiyyahthat Maalik (rahimahullaah) considered that to be an innovation."  Ash-Shaatibee (rahimahullaah) said: "It is concluded that making du'aain the form of congregation, all the time, was not from the actions of the Messenger of Allaah rnor from his statements or silent approvals." 
Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said: "As for making du'aa (supplication) after finishing the prayer, whether facing the Qiblah or facing the followers in prayer, then this was not from his (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) guidance at all. Nor has this action been reported on him whether through a saheeh or hasan chain of narration. And as for specifying that to be done in the Fajr and 'Asr prayers, then he never did this nor did any of his Khaleefahs. Nor did his ummah direct towards its implementation. Rather, it was s imply an opinion that was put into practice, by those that held that it was to take the place after the two prayers. And as for the supplications that are connected with the prayer, then indeed he (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) used to say them while in his prayer and he commanded others to do that also. This is what is most befitting based on the condition of the one praying, for indeed when one prays, he is facing his Lord and conversing privately with Him, so long as he remains in prayer. But when he recites the tasleem, that private counsel comes to an end and his position of being in the presence of his Lord and his nearness to Him ceases. So how is it that he can abandon asking Him while he is in the state of private counsel with Him, nearness to Him and responsiveness, and then ask Him when he finishes from performing his prayer?! There is no doubt that the opposite of this condition is better for the one praying." 
One should make Istighfaar (i.e. say Astaghfirullaah) three times and then say the tasbeeh, the tahmeed, and the takbeer thirty three times each and then finish that with the tahleel, after the prayer. One should observe quietness in any state he is in after the prayer, such as standing, sitting or walking. And indeed, gathering to perform that (dhikr after prayer), participating in it and raising the voice out loud whilst doing it, are all innovations. The fact that it has become a habit seems insignificant to the people. And if anyone should call them to apply these similar characteristics to any other of the acts of worship, such as the prayer for entering the masjid (two raka'aat) for example, then they would renounce him, in the utmost manner. 
Also from its types is what has been innovated from making dhikr after each of the two Salaams at the end of the night prayer in Ramadaan, as well as doing it in a loud voice and in one unified rhythm. For indeed that is from the innovations.
1. A section of his book Al-Fasl-ul-Mubeen fee Akhtaa il-Musalleen
2. Reported by Abu Dawood in his Sunan (no. 5200) with anauthentic chain. All of its narrators are reliable. See Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah no. 186Reported by Abu Dawood in his Sunan (no. 5200) with anauthentic chain. All of its narrators are reliable. See Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah (no. 186)
3. Reported by Abu Dawood in his Sunan (no.927) and Ahmad in his Musnad (no. 2/30) with an authentic chain of narration according to the conditions of Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. See As-Saheehah (no. 185)
4. Masaa'il Al-Marwazee (pg. 22)
5. 'Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee Sharh Sunan At-Tirmidhee (2/162)
6. Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim
7. Nazl-ul-Abraar (pg. 350-351)
8. Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah (1/314)
9. Surat-un-Nisaa: 86
10. Surat-ul-Ahzaab: 44
11. Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 54) and Ahmad in Al-Musnad (2/391, 442, 447) and others
12. See Tamaam-ul-Kalaam FeeBida'iyyat-il-Musaafaha Ba'ada As-Salaam (pg. 24-25)
13. The use of the author's (Al-'Izz) words: "It has been reported" indicates that the hadeeth is weak. However, it is not so, thus it would have been better for him to have said: "It is established". The hadeeth is found in Saheeh Muslim (no. 62), Sunan At-Tirmidhee and Musnad Ahmad.
14. Fataawaa Al-'Izz Ibn'Abd-is-Salaam (pg. 46-47); Also see Al-Majmoo' (3/488)
15. As-Si'aayah fee Al-Kashfi 'amaa fee Sharh Al-Wiqaayah (pg. 264). From his words it is understood that there is no harm in the shaking of hands between two or more people that did not meet each other, prior to that. Al-Albaanee said in As-Saheehah (1/23): "As for shaking the hands specifically after the congregational prayers, then this is an innovation of which there is no doubt, unless it occurs between two people that did not encounter each other, prior to that. In this case, it would be recommended for them to shake hands."
16. As-Si'aayah fee Al-Kashfi 'amaa fee Sharh Al-Wiqaayah (pg.264). Also see Ad-Deen-ul-Khaalis (4/314) and Al-Madkhal (2/84)
17. As-Si'aayah fee Al-Kashfi 'amaa fee Sharh Al-Wiqaayah (pg. 264)
18. Editor's Note: This is since stopping a harm will bring about good, whereas bringing about good does not necessarily stop a harm.
19. As-Si'aayah fee Al-Kashfi 'amaa fee Sharh Al-Wiqaayah (pg.265)
20. See Tamaam-ul-Kalaam Fee Bida'iyyat-il-Musaafaha Ba'ada As-Salaam (pg. 23)
21. Al-Baa'ith 'Alaa Inkaar-il-Bid'i wal-Hawaadith (pg. 58)
22. Musaajala 'Ilmiyyah (pg. 7-8)
23. See Al-Baa'ith 'Alaa Inkaar-il-Bid'i wal-Hawaadith (pg. 57-58), Al-Wajeez (2/234) and Al-Masjid feel-Islaam (pg. 227-228)
24. As-Sunan wal-Mubtadi'aat (pg. 70)
25. Al-'Itisaam (1/351)
26. Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree (no. 841) and Sunan Abu Dawood (no. 1002)
27. As is reported fromhim in Fath-ul-Baaree (2/326)
31. See Fataawaa Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa (4/1358-1359)
Source: Al-Fasl-ul-Mubeen Fee Akhtaa-il-Musalleen