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  3. The Prophet’s Guidance in Hajj and Umrah

The Prophet’s Guidance in Hajj and Umrah

Auther : Dr. Ahmad bin Uthman al-Mazyad
3098 2012/11/28 2024/04/17

a. His Guidance in Umrah

He (peace be upun him) undertook Umrah four times. They were:
1) The Umrah of al-Hudaybiyyah - The polytheists prevented him from reaching Makkah, therefore he slaughtered and shaved at the place where they stopped him, ending the state of ihraam.
2) The Umrah of compensation [for the first one], in the following year.
3) The Umrah joined with Hajj
4) The Umrah from al-Ju`ranah.

It happened that during his lifetime he (peace be upun him) never began an Umrah from inside Makkah; he performed all of them when entering Makkah.

It was never reported that he performed Umrah more than once in the same year.

All of his Umrahs were performed during the Hajj months.

But he (peace be upun him) said, "An Umrah in the month of Ramadhan is equal [in reward] to a Hajj."

b. His Guidance in Hajj

When Hajj became obligatory the Prophet (peace be upun him) hastened to perform it without delay. He (peace be upun him) did not perform Hajj except once, and it was the qiraan form of Hajj.

He (peace be upun him) entered ihraam after the thuhr prayer and recited the talbiyah, which is: "Labbayk-Allaahumma labbayk. Labbayka la shareeka laka labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-ni`mata laka wa- mulk. La shareeka lak." (I respond [in obedience] to You, O Allah, I respond. I respond - no partner is there to You, I respond. All praise and favour is Yours, and sovereignty. There is no partner to You.)
He raised his voice with the talbiyah until it was heard by his companions. He told them, Allah had ordered raising their voices with talbiyah. He (peace be upun him) kept to this talbiyah while people added to it or omitted parts of it but he did not criticize them for that.

At the time of assuming ihraam he (peace be upun him) let his companions choose any of three types of Hajj. When they approached Makkah he (peace be upun him) urged those who had no sacrificial animal with them to end their state of ihram after Umrah.

He (peace be upun him) performed Hajj riding a camel and his food and luggage were also on the camel.

The following is a description of the Prophet's Hajj and the method he followed:
After arriving in Makkah, he firmly ordered those who had no sacrificial animal with them to perform Umrah only and then end their state of ihraam, but for those who had the animal with them to remain in the state of ihraam. He (peace be upun him) continued to the valley of Dhu Tuwa, where he spent the eve of Sunday, the 4th of Dhul-Hijjah. He performed the fajr prayer there, had a bath and entered Makkah by day from its upper vicinity, called ath-Thaniyyah al-`Ulya, which overlooks Hujun.
Upon entering the Sacred Mosque, he (peace be upun him) headed for the Ka`bah without performing the usual prayer for salutation of the mosque. When opposite the Black Stone he kissed it without crowding anyone. He began tawaaf (circling the Ka`bah) with the Ka`bah to his left and without supplicating at its door or under the waterspout, nor at the back of the Ka`bah or at its corners. It has been reported that while walking between the Ka`bah's two corners, that of the Black Stone and the Yemeni corner, he would recite: “Rabbana aatina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-aakhirati hasantan wa qina `adhaaban-naar. (Our Lord, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the Fire). He (peace be upun him) did not specify any words or supplications during tawaaf other than this.
He (peace be upun him) jogged with small steps through the first three rounds of his tawaaf. He wrapped his garment in such a way that its two ends met over one of his shoulders while his other shoulder was left uncovered.
Whenever he (peace be upun him) came opposite to the Black Stone he kissed it or touched it with his staff and then kissed the staff, saying “Allahu akbar."
He (peace be upun him) would touch the Yemeni corner but neither kissed it nor kissed his hand after touching it.
After finishing tawaaf, he (peace be upun him) stood behind the station of Abraham  and recited
"Wattakhidhu min maqaami ibraheema musalla." (And take the station of Abraham as a place of prayer). He (peace be upun him) performed two rak`ahs with the station of Abraham between him and the Ka`bah. In these he recited after Al-Fatihah: Surah "Al-Kafirun" and Surah "Al-Ikhlaas". After praying he went back to the Black Stone and kissed it.
Then he (peace be upun him) headed toward the hill of Safa, and when he approached it, he recited: "Innas-safa wal-marwata min sha`aa'irillah" (Indeed, Safa and Marwah are among the rites of Allah), and added, “I begin with what Allah began with.” He (peace be upun him) ascended Safa until he could see the Ka`bah. Then he faced it, saying:
“La ilaaha ill-Allahu wallaahu akbar, la ilaaha ill-Allahu wahdahu la shareeka lahu, lahul mulku wa lahul-hamdu, yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa `ala kulli shay'in qadeer, la ilaaha ill-Allahu wahdahu, anjaza wa`dahu wa nasara `abdahu wa hazamal-ahzaaba wahdah."
(There is no god but Allah alone with no partner. His is the dominion and His is [all] praise and He is over all things competent. There is no god but Allah alone; He fulfilled His promise and supported His servant and defeated the [enemy] allies alone.) He (peace be upun him) repeated this three times, supplicating in between.
Then he (peace be upun him) began sa`i, descending from Safa and walking toward the hill of Marwah. When he (peace be upun him) reached the valley (now shown by two green markers) he jogged, and when he had cleared the valley he walked. He (peace be upun him) began the sa`i walking but concluded it riding due to the crowds of people around him.
When he (peace be upun him) reached Marwah he climbed it until he could see the Ka`bah. There he made supplications as he had done at Safa. After completing the sa`i at Marwah, he ordered all those who had no sacrificial animal with them to completely end the state of ihraam, even if they had intended the qiraan or ifraad type of Hajj.
He (peace be upun him) did not end his state of ihraam because he had brought his sacrifice with him, but he said: "If I had known before what I know now, I would not have brought the animal and would have made it an Umrah."
He (peace be upun him) supplicated thrice for those who shaved their heads and once for those who shortened their hair.
Throughout his stay in Makkah and up to the day of tarwiyah he (peace be upun him) would lead the prayers at the place of his residence, shortening them.
Before noon on that day he (peace be upun him) and his companions set out for Mina, and whoever had ended his state of ihraam entered it again while on his mount.
Upon reaching Mina he (peace be upun him) dismounted, performed the thuhr, 'asr, maghrib and `isha prayers and spent the night there. After sunrise, he proceeded to the plain of `Arafah. Some of his companions were reciting "Allahu akbar" and others were repeating the talbiyah and he (peace be upun him) did not correct anyone. He (peace be upun him) found the tent pitched for him at Namirah as he had ordered. (Namirah is not part of `Arafah; it was a village to the east of `Arafah.) He (peace be upun him) stayed until shortly after mid-day when he ordered his she-camel, named al-Qaswa, to be saddled. Then he rode until he came to the valley within `Arafah. There he (peace be upun him) delivered one great sermon while on his camel. Therein, he affirmed the fundamentals of Islam and abolished the foundations of polytheism and the pre-Islamic days of ignorance. He (peace be upun him) confirmed all prohibitions universally agreed upon by all religions and abolished all unlawful pre-Islamic practices, including interest. He (peace be upun him) ordered the people to treat women well and to abide by the Book of Allah. He asked if he had communicated the message, and upon hearing their unanimous affirmation made Allah witness to it.
When he (peace be upun him) finished the sermon, he ordered Bilal  to call the adhaan; then he pronounced the iqaamah. It was a Friday; He (peace be upun him) led the thuhr prayer as two rak`ahs with silent recitation, although it was Friday. Bilal  made a second iqaamah and he led the `asr prayer as two rak`ahs also. The inhabitants of Makkah were with him, and he (peace be upun him) did not tell them to complete the prayer and did not forbid them from joining the two prayers.
After completing his prayer, he (peace be upun him) rode until he reached the place of standing. When some people wondered whether or not he (peace be upun him) was fasting, his wife, Maymunah sent him some milk, which he (peace be upun him) drank in front of the people. He (peace be upun him) stayed on his mount at the foot of the mountain on the rocks and faced the Qiblah with the rope in his hand. He (peace be upun him) began supplicating and fervently beseeching Allah and continued thus until sunset.
He (peace be upun him) told the people to stay above the valley of `Uranah and said, “I am standing here but all of `Arafah is a standing place.”
While supplicating he (peace be upun him) raised his hands to his chest like a poor man begging for food. He (peace be upun him) said: “The best supplication is the supplication on the day of `Arafah, and the best thing that I and the prophets before me have said is: "La ilaaha ill-Allahu wahdahu la shareeka lah. Lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu wa huwa `ala kulli shay'in qadeer. (There is no god but Allah alone having no partner. His is the dominion and His is all praise and He is over all things competent.)
When the sun had set completely he (peace be upun him) departed from `Arafah serenely with Usamah bin Zayd riding behind him. He (peace be upun him) pulled the reins of his camel back toward him [to slow her pace] until her head touched the edge of the saddle. He (peace be upun him) said, “O people, be calm. Hastening is not a sign of righteousness.”
He (peace be upun him) departed by “al-Ma'zimayn” route but had entered `Arafah from “Dhabb”. He (peace be upun him) proceeded at a moderate pace but speeded up whenever there was an open space.
He (peace be upun him) continued reciting the talbiyah along the way. At one point he (peace be upun him) dismounted, answered a call of nature, washed and then resumed his journey. He (peace be upun him) did not pray until he reached Muzdalifah, where he performed wudhu' for prayer and ordered the call of adhaan and iqaamah. He (peace be upun him) performed the maghrib prayer before making camp and having the camels kneel. After settling the camels he ordered a second iqaamah but without an adhaan. He (peace be upun him) performed the `ishaa' prayer without any prayer between maghrib and `ishaa'. He (peace be upun him) then slept until dawn and did not spend the night in worship.
That same night after the moon had set he (peace be upun him) gave permission to the weak amongst his family to go on to Mina before dawn, but told them not to perform rami (stoning of the pillar) before sunrise.
As soon as dawn appeared, he (peace be upun him) performed the fajr prayer after the adhaan and iqaamah. Then he (peace be upun him) rode until he reached al-Mash`ar al-Haraam and told the people that all of Muzdalifah is a standing place. He (peace be upun him) faced the Qiblah and commenced supplication and praise of Allah. He (peace be upun him) departed from Muzdalifah before sunrise with al-Fadl bin Abbas  riding behind him.
On the way he (peace be upun him) told al-Fadl bin Abbas  to collect seven pebbles for him. Shaking them in his hand, he (peace be upun him) said, “Use similar pebbles for stoning, and avoid extremism in religion.”
Upon reaching Muhassir valley, he made haste, taking the middle road that leads to the large jamrah. He (peace be upun him) continued reciting the talbiyah until he reached Mina and began the stoning. He (peace be upun him) stoned the large jamrah after sunrise while riding his camel. He (peace be upun him) threw the pebbles from the lower part of the valley with the Ka`bah to his left and Mina to his right. He (peace be upun him) threw them one at a time, saying, "Allahu akbar " with each pebble.
Then he (peace be upun him) returned to Mina and delivered an eloquent sermon in which he informed the people about the sanctity and excellence of the Day of Sacrifice as well as the sanctity of Makkah. He (peace be upun him) also ordered them to obey those leaders who abide by the Book of Allah and taught them the rites of Hajj. He (peace be upun him) then went to the place of slaughter in Mina and sacrificed sixty-three camels with his own hand while they were standing with the left leg tied up. Then he (peace be upun him) stopped and asked `Ali to complete the slaughter of one hundred camels. He (peace be upun him) ordered Ali to give them in charity to the poor. He (peace be upun him) said that a butcher should not be given his wages out of the sacrificial meat.
He (peace be upun him) told them that all of Mina is a place of slaughter, as well as the roads and valleys leading to Makkah.
After he (peace be upun him) finished the sacrifice he called the barber and had his head shaved, starting with the right side and then the left. He (peace be upun him) gave the hair to Abu Talhah and said, “Distribute it among the people.”
He (peace be upun him) asked forgiveness three times for those who shaved their heads and once for those who shortened their hair. Aisha  applied scent to him before he removed his ihraam garments.
He (peace be upun him) departed for Makkah on his camel before noon. He (peace be upun him) performed tawaaf al-ifaadhah and did no other tawaaf or sa`i after it. He did not jog in this tawaaf or in the farewell tawaaf, but only during the initial one.
Following tawaaf he went to Zamzam where he (peace be upun him) found people drinking from the well. They handed him the bucket and he (peace be upun him) drank while standing. Then he returned to Mina where he (peace be upun him) spent the night. There was disagreement about where he (peace be upun him) performed thuhr prayer that day. Ibn `Umar reported that he (peace be upun him) performed thuhr in Mina while Jabir  and Aisha said that he (peace be upun him) prayed it in Makkah.
The next morning he (peace be upun him) waited until the sun had passed its meridian and walked to the pillars, where he began with the first (smallest) jamrah right behind the Khayf mosque. He (peace be upun him) threw seven pebbles, saying, "Allahu akbar" with each pebble.
Then he (peace be upun him) moved forward toward the jamrah and faced the Qiblah, raising his hands and making a long supplication, as long as [the recitation of] Surah al-Baqarah.
Then he (peace be upun him) went to the middle jamrah and stoned it in the same way. Then he (peace be upun him) moved left toward the valley and faced the Qiblah, raising his hands in supplication almost as long as before.
Then he (peace be upun him) went to the third and largest jamrah (al-`Aqabah), standing with the Ka`bah to his left and Mina to his right, and stoned it with seven pebbles also. Upon completing the stoning he returned without standing for supplication.
In all probability he (peace be upun him) did the stoning before performing the thuhr prayer and then return to perform the prayer. He gave permission to al-`Abbas  to spend the nights of Mina in Makkah in order to provide people with water.
He (peace be upun him) did not hasten his departure after two days but delayed it until he completed the stoning of all the three days. Then he (peace be upun him) departed in the afternoon stopping at Muhassab. He (peace be upun him) performed thuhr, `asr, maghrib and `ishaa' prayers and rested awhile. Then he (peace be upun him) went on to Makkah where he performed the farewell tawaaf at night before dawn without jogging. He (peace be upun him) excused his wife, Safiyyah from the farewell tawaaf because she had menstruated.
And he (peace be upun him) allowed Aisha that night to perform Umrah from Tan`eem accompanied by her brother, Abdur-Rahman,  and when she had finished, he (peace be upun him) announced the departure to his companions and the people departed.

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